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Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2010, Vol. 8 ›› Issue (1): 40-45.doi: 10.3736/jcim20100108

• Original Clinical Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Relationships between constitutional types of traditional Chinese medicine and hypertension

 Yan-bo Zhua, Qi Wangb, Qi-wei Dengc, Jing Caid, Xiao-hong Songe, Xue Yanb   

  1. a Department of Management, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
    b School of Preclinical Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
    c School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jiangxi High Training School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 344000, Jiangxi Province, China
    d Geriatrics Institute of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Fujian College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 350003, Fujian Province, China
    e Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qinghai Province People’s Hospital,Xining 810007,Qinghai Province,China;
  • Received:2009-07-31 Accepted:2009-12-03 Online:2010-01-20 Published:2010-01-15
  • Contact: Qi WANG E-mail:wangqi710@126.com

Objective

To investigate the relationships between constitutional types of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and hypertension so as to provide epidemiological evidence for the theory of correlation between constitution and disease.
Methods

A cross-sectional survey of TCM constitution data from a population of 7 782 from Beijng and 8 provinces of China (Jiangsu, Anhui, Gansu, Qinghai, Fujian, Jilin, Jiangxi, and Henan) was made in the study. The survey of TCM constitutions was performed by standardized TCM Constitution Questionnaire. Discriminatory analysis was used to judge the individual constitutional types including normal constitution, and qi deficiency, yang deficiency, yin deficiency, phlegm-dampness, damp-heat, blood stasis, qi stagnation and special constitutions. A multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the significantly influential constitutional factors of hypertension.
Results

After controlling several factors like gender, age, marital status, occupation, and educational background, three TCM constitutional factors according to different degrees of relative risks were entered into the multiple stepwise logistic regression model. The three factors were phlegm-dampness, yin deficiency and qi deficiency constitutions, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 2.00 [1.58, 2.55], 1.66 [1.33, 2.08] and 1.37 [1.13, 1.66] respectively. The main constitutional influential factors of hypertension in male patients were phlegm-dampness and yin deficiency constitutions, with OR and 95% CI of 1.61 [1.22, 2.14] and 1.60 [1.17, 2.19]. Phlegm-dampness, yin deficiency and qi deficiency constitutions were the main constitutional influential factors of hypertension in female patients. The OR and 95% CI were 2.80 [1.79, 4.39], 1.55 [1.13, 2.14] and 1.39[1.05, 1.84] respectively. Phlegm-dampness constitution had more influence on hypertension in female patients than other constitution types.
Conclusion

Phlegm-dampness, yin deficiency, and qi deficiency constitutions are the main influential factors of hypertension. Hypertensive patients with different gender have different constitutional influential factors.

Key words: Hypertension, Body constitution, Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis, Traditional Chinese medicine

Table 1

Distribution characteristics of different population with hypertension"

Variance High blood pressure [Cases (%)]
Yes No P
Gender 0.000
Male 832 (22.74) 2 826 (77.26)
Female 675 (16.37) 3 449 (83.63)
Age 0.000
≥15, <25 years 91 (3.51) 2 499 (96.49)
≥25, <35 years 135 (8.36) 1 479 (91.64)
≥35, <45 years 290 (17.43) 1 374 (82.57)
≥45, <55 years 353 (37.75) 582 (62.25)
≥55, <65 years 309 (59.65) 209 (40.35)
≥65 years 329 (71.37) 132 (28.63)
Marital status 0.000
Single 138 (4.62) 2 852 (95.38)
Married 1 278 (27.89) 3 304 (72.11)
Other type 91 (43.33) 119 (56.67)
Educational background 0.000
Primary education 198 (38.00) 323 (62.00)
Middle or high school diploma 726 (20.37) 2 838 (79.63)
College degree 583 (15.78) 3 111 (84.22)
Occupation 0.000
Student 70 (3.59) 1 879 (96.41)
Professional technical personnel 416 (19.89) 1 675 (80.11)
Unit leader 237 (41.58) 333 (58.42)
Other type 784 (24.72) 2 388 (75.28)
Physical constitution 0.000
Normal constitution (平和质) 388 (14.64) 2 262 (85.36)
Qi deficiency constitution (气虚质) 225 (23.10) 749 (76.90)
Yang deficiency constitution (阳虚质) 170 (24.15) 534 (75.85)
Yin deficiency constitution (阴虚质) 158 (21.53) 576 (78.47)
Phlegm-dampness constitution (痰湿质) 154 (32.56) 319 (67.44)
Damp-heat constitution (湿热质) 95(16.55) 479 (83.45)
Blood stasis constitution (血瘀质) 114 (20.47) 443 (79.53)
Qi stagnation constitution (气郁质) 131 (17.90) 601 (82.10)
Special constitution (特禀质) 72 (18.75) 312 (81.25)

Table 2

A multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis of constitution factors of traditional Chinese medicine in hypertensive patients"

Logistic model β Standard error Wald chi-square P Odds ratio 95% confidence interval
Model 1
Qi deficiency constitution 0.47 0.09 29.42 0.000 1.60 1.35, 1.90
Yang deficiency constitution 0.53 0.10 29.40 0.000 1.70 1.40, 2.05
Yin deficiency constitution 0.38 0.10 14.68 0.000 1.46 1.20, 2.77
Phlegm-dampness constitution 0.94 0.11 78.52 0.000 2.57 2.09, 3.17
Blood stasis constitution 0.32 0.11 7.79 0.005 1.37 1.10, 1.71
Model 2
Qi deficiency constitution 0.31 0.10 9.85 0.002 1.37 1.13, 1.66
Yin deficiency constitution 0.51 0.11 19.63 0.000 1.66 1.33, 2.08
Phlegm-dampness constitution 0.69 0.12 32.21 0.000 2.00 1.58, 2.55

Table 3

A multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis of constitution factors of traditional Chinese medicine in male hypertensive patients"

Logistic model β Standard error Wald chi-square P Odds ratio 95% confidence interval
Model 1
Yang deficiency constitution 0.67 0.15 20.91 0.000 1.95 1.47, 2.60
Phlegm-dampness constitution 0.54 0.13 17.90 0.000 1.72 1.34, 2.21
Blood stasis constitution 0.38 0.18 4.36 0.037 1.47 1.02, 2.10
Model 2
Yin deficiency constitution 0.47 0.16 8.56 0.003 1.60 1.17, 2.19
Phlegm-dampness constitution 0.48 0.14 11.16 0.000 1.61 1.22, 2.14

Table 4

A multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis of constitution factors of traditional Chinese medicine in female hypertensive patients"

Logistic model β Standard error Wald chi-square P Odds ratio 95% confidence interval
Model 1
Qi deficiency constitution 0.85 0.13 42.95 0.000 2.33 1.81, 3.00
Yang deficiency constitution 0.66 0.14 22.48 0.000 1.94 1.47, 2.55
Yin deficiency constitution 0.70 0.15 23.24 0.000 2.01 1.52, 2.68
Phlegm-dampness constitution 1.51 0.19 64.23 0.000 4.53 3.13, 6.55
Blood stasis constitution 0.54 0.15 12.42 0.000 1.71 1.27, 2.31
Qi stagnation constitution 0.34 0.15 4.93 0.026 1.40 1.04, 1.89
Model 2
Qi deficiency constitution 0.33 0.14 5.20 0.023 1.39 1.05, 1.84
Yin deficiency constitution 0.44 0.16 7.16 0.008 1.55 1.13, 2.14
Phlegm-dampness constitution 1.03 0.23 20.45 0.000 2.80 1.79, 4.39
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