Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2010, Vol. 8 ›› Issue (1): 56-60.doi: 10.3736/jcim20100111

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on fertility and heights of epithelial cells in pre-implantation stage endometrium and fallopian tube in mice

Farzad Rajaeia,Nasim Borhania,Fatemeh Sabbagh-Ziarania,Farhad Mashayekhib   

  1. a Department of Anatomical Sciences & Infertility Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine,Qazvin University of Medical Sciences,Qazvin 34197-59811,Iran
    b Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht 1914, Iran
  • Received:2009-07-31 Accepted:2009-11-15 Online:2010-01-20 Published:2010-01-15
  • Contact: Farhad Mahayekhi


To investigate the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on fertility and heights of epithelial cells in pre-implantation stage endometrium and fallopian tube in mice.

Eighty female NMRI mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group was not exposed to EMF and experimental group was exposed to 4-hour EMF per day, 6 days a week for 2 weeks to 50 Hz, 0.5 mT EMF. Female mice in two groups were superovulated and mated with male mice over night. At the time of implantation, the blastocysts were obtained from the presumed pregnant mice with vaginal plug by flushing the uterus horns. The samples of uterus horns and fallopian tubes in two groups were taken and were processed for light microscopic studies.

The analysis of mean number of the flushed blastocysts in the EMF group showed significant decrease as compared with the control group (P<0.03). Light microscopic study showed that the height of fallopian tube epithelial cells was significantly increased in the EMF group as compared with the control group (P<0.001). However the height of endometrial epithelial cells in the EMF group showed insignificant increase as compared with the control group.

The results indicate that ELF-EMF has detrimental effect on female reproductive system in mice by decreasing the number of flushed blastocysts and increasing the height of fallopian tube epithelial cells.

Key words: Epithelium, Endometrium, Fallopian tube, Fertility, Mice


Group n Height of fallopian tube epithelium (mm) Height of endometrial epithelium (mm) Number of blastocysts
Control 60 20.37±0.24 20.11±0.44 9.0±4.8
Experimental 65 23.83±0.48 20.68±0.57 5.5±5.7
P value <0.001 >0.05 <0.03

Figure 1

Microscopic view of mouse fallopian tube (HE staining, ×40) A: Control group , enfolding of mucosa with normal epithelial cells. B: EMF group. The arrow shows increase in size of epithelial cells as compared with the control group. Bar in Figure B represents 10 μm."

[1] Adey WR . Biological effects of electromagnetic fields[J]. J Cell Biochem, 1993,51(4):410-416
doi: 10.1002/jcb.v51.4
[2] Ahlbom IC, Cardis E, Green A, Linet M, Savitz D, Swerdlow A ; ICNIRP (International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) Standing Committee on Epidemiology.Review of the epidemiologic literature on EMF and health[J]. Environ Health Perspect, 2001,109(Suppl 6):911-933
doi: 10.2307/3454653 pmid: 11744509
[3] Ivancsits S, Pilger A, Diem E, Jahn O, Rüdiger HW . Cell type-specific genotoxic effects of intermittent extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields[J]. Mutat Res, 2005,583(2):184-188
doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2005.03.011
[4] Robert E . Teratogen update: electromagnetic fields[J]. Teratology, 1996,54(6):305-313
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1096-9926
[5] De Mattei M, Caruso A, Traina GC, Pezzetti F, Baroni T, Sollazzo V . Correlation between pulsed electromagnetic fields exposure time and cell proliferation increase in human osteosarcoma cell lines and human normal osteoblast cells in vitro[J]. Bioelectromagnetics, 1999,20(3):177-182
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1521-186X
[6] Ruiz Gómez MJ , De la Peña L,Pastor JM,Martínez Morillo M,Gil L.25 Hz electromagnetic field exposure has no effect on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in U-937 and HCA-2/1cch cells[J]. Bioelectrochemistry, 2001,53(1):137-140
doi: 10.1016/S0302-4598(00)00119-7
[7] Simkó M, Kriehuber R, Weiss DG, Luben RA . Effects of 50 Hz EMF exposure on micronucleus formation and apoptosis in transformed and nontransformed human cell lines[J]. Bioelectromagnetics, 1998,19(2):85-91
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1521-186X
[8] McLeod KJ, Collazo L . Suppression of a differentiation response in MC-3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells by sustained, low-level, 30 Hz magnetic-field exposure[J]. Radiat Res, 2000,153(5 Pt 2):706-714
doi: 10.1667/0033-7587(2000)153[0706:SOADRI]2.0.CO;2
[9] McCann J, Dietrich F, Rafferty C . The genotoxic potential of electric and magnetic fields: an update[J]. Mutat Res, 1998,411(1):45-86
doi: 10.1016/S1383-5742(98)00006-4 pmid: 9675241
[10] Phillips JL, Haggren W, Thomas WJ, Ishida-Jones T, Adey WR . Magnetic field-induced changes in specific gene transcription[J]. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1992,1132(2):140-144
doi: 10.1016/0167-4781(92)90004-J
[11] Morehouse CA, Owen RD . Exposure of Daudi cells to low-frequency magnetic fields does not elevate MYC steady-state mRNA levels[J]. Radiat Res, 2000,153(5 Pt 2):663-669
doi: 10.1667/0033-7587(2000)153[0663:EODCTL]2.0.CO;2
[12] Zhou J, Li C, Yao G, Chiang H, Chang Z . Gene expression of cytokine receptors in HL60 cells exposed to a 50 Hz magnetic field[J]. Bioelectromagnetics, 2002,23(5):33 9-346.
doi: 10.1002/bem.10027 pmid: 12111754
[13] Wolf FI, Torsello A, Tedesco B, Fasanella S, Boninsegna A , D’Ascenzo M, Grassi C, Azzena GB, Cittadini A.50-Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields enhance cell proliferation and DNA damage: possible involvement of a redox mechanism[J]. Biochim Biophys Acta, 2005,1743(1-2):120-129
doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2004.09.005
[14] Grassi C , D’Ascenzo M, Torsello A, Martinotti G, Wolf F, Cittadini A, Azzena GB.Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and their role in modulation of neuroendocrine cell proliferation and death[J]. Cell Calcium, 2004,35(4):307-315
doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2003.09.001
[15] Lacy-Hulbert A, Metcalfe JC, Hesketh R . Biological responses to electromagnetic fields[J]. FASEB J, 1998,12(6):395-420
doi: 10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2530525.x pmid: 9535213
[16] Whittingham DG . Survival of mouse embryos after freezing and thawing[J]. Nature, 1971,233(5315):125-126
doi: 10.1038/233125a0 pmid: 1142347
[17] Rajaei F, Farokhi M, Ghasemi N, Pahlevan AA . Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic field on mouse epididymis and deferens ducts[J]. Iranian J Reprod Med, 2009,7(2):85-89
doi: 10.1007/s00192-008-0795-4
[18] Kim YW, Kim HS, Lee JS, Kim YJ, Lee SK, Seo JN, Jung KC, Kim N, Gimm YM . Effects of 60 Hz 14 mT magnetic field on the apoptosis of testicular germ cell in mice[J]. Bioelectromagnetics, 2009,30(1):66-72
doi: 10.1002/bem.20448 pmid: 18839413
[19] Tranquilli AL, Bezzeccheri V, Giannubilo SR, Scagnoli C, Mazzanti L, Garzetti GG . Amniotic vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and nitric oxide(NO) in women with subsequent preeclampsia[J]. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2004,113(1):17-20
doi: 10.1016/S0301-2115(03)00369-5
[20] Takagi Y, Nikaido T, Toki T, Kita N, Kanai M, Ashida T, Ohira S, Konishi I . Levels of oxidative stress and redox-related molecules in the placenta in preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction[J]. Virchows Arch, 2004,444(1):49-55
doi: 10.1007/s00428-003-0903-2
[21] Jung KA, Ahn HS, Lee YS, Gye MC . Effect of a 20 kHz sawtooth magnetic field exposure on the estrous cycle in mice[J]. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2007,17(3):398-402
doi: 10.1007/s10295-006-0180-6 pmid: 18050941
[22] Minkina NA , Kuz'minskaia GN, Nikitina VN, Garina ChA.Effect of discontinuous short-wave electromagne-tic field irradiation on the state of the endocrine glands[J]. Radiobiologiia, 1985,25(6):756-762
[23] Zimmermann B, Hentschel D . Effect of static magnetic field(3.5 T) on the reproductive behavior of mice, on the embryo and fetal development and on selected hematologic parameters[J]. Digitale Bilddiagn, 1987,7(4):155-161
[24] Al-Akhras MA, Elbetieha A, Hasan MK, Al-Omari I, Darmani H, Albiss B . Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field on fertility of adult male and female rats[J]. Bioelectromagnetics, 2001,22(5):340-344
doi: 10.1002/bem.59 pmid: 11424157
[25] Ohnishi Y, Mizuno F, Sato T, Yasui M, Kikuchi T, Ogawa M . Effects of power frequency alternating magnetic fields on reproduction and pre-natal development of mice[J]. J Toxicol Sci, 2002,27(3):131-138
doi: 10.2131/jts.27.131
[26] Chung MK, Kim JC, Myung SH . Lack of adverse effects in pregnant/lactating female rats and their offspring following pre- and postnatal exposure to ELF magnetic fields[J]. Bioelectromagnetics, 2004,25(4):236-244
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1521-186X
[27] Bota DA, Ngo JK, Davies KJ . Downregulation of the human Lon protease impairs mitochondrial structure and function and causes cell death[J]. Free Radic Biol Med, 2005,38(5):665-677
doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.11.017
[28] Sul AR, Park SN, Suh H . Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic field on structure and function of different kinds of cell lines[J]. Yonsei Med J, 2006,47(6):852-861
doi: 10.3349/ymj.2006.47.6.852
[29] Thalau HP, Raczek J, Marx B, Hombach V, Cooper J . Temperature changes in chicken embryos exposed to a continuous-wave 1.25 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field[J]. Radiat Res, 2003,159(5):685-692
doi: 10.1667/0033-7587(2003)159[0685:TCICEE]2.0.CO;2
[30] Rollwitz J, Lupke M, Simko M . Fifty-hertz magnetic fields induce free radical formation in mouse bone marrow-derived promonocytes and macrophages[J]. Biochim Biophys Acta, 2004,1674(3):231-238
doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2004.06.024
[1] Hong-xiao Li, Ling Shi, Shang-jie Liang Chen-chen Fang, Qian-qian Xu, Ge Lu, Qian Wang, Jie Cheng, Jie Shen, Mei-hong Shen. Moxibustion alleviates decreased ovarian reserve in rats by restoring the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 163-172.
[2] Victor Abou Nehmi Filho, Gilson Masahiro Murata, Ruan Carlos Macêdo de Moraes, Gabriely Cristina Alves Lima, Danielle Araujo de Miranda, Katrin Radloff, Raquel Galvão Figuerêdo Costa, Joyce de Cassia Rosa de Jesus, Jéssica Alves De Freitas, Nayara Izabel Viana, Ruan Pimenta, Katia Ramos Moreira Leite, José Pinhata Otoch, Ana Flávia Marçal Pessoa. A novel supplement with yeast β-glucan, prebiotic, minerals and Silybum marianum synergistically modulates metabolic and inflammatory pathways and improves steatosis in obese mice. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(5): 439-450.
[3] Hao Gou, Ruo-chen Huang, Yong-hua Su, Wei Li. Design of dual targeting immunomicelles loaded with bufalin and study of their anti-tumor effect on liver cancer. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(5): 408-417.
[4] Rex-Clovis C. Njoku, Sunny O. Abarikwu. Antifertility and profertility effects of the leaves and seeds of fluted pumpkin: Sperm quality, hormonal effects and histomorphological changes in the testes of experimental animal models. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 104-110.
[5] Xia-qiu Wu, Wendy Satmary, Jin Peng, Ka-kit Hui. Women's preconception health patterns in traditional Chinese medicine as a predictor of fertility outcomes. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(3): 222-228.
[6] Yi Ran Hu, San Li Xing, Chuan Chen, Ding Zhu Shen, Jiu Lin Chen. Tiaoxin Recipe, a Chinese herbal formula, inhibits microRNA-34a expression in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 404-409.
[7] Bhesh Raj Sharma, Dong Wook Kim, Dong Young Rhyu. Korean Chungtaejeon tea extract attenuates weight gain in C57BL/6J-Lep ob/ob mice and regulates adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(1): 56-63.
[8] Reshma M.Ansari. Potential use of durian fruit (Durio zibenthinus Linn) as an adjunct to treat infertility in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(1): 22-28.
[9] Shi-li Jiang, Xu-dong Hu, Ping Liu. Immunomodulation and liver protection of Yinchenhao decoction against concanavalin A-induced chronic liver injury in mice. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(4): 262-268.
[10] Elizabeth Abidemi Balogun, Sylvia Orume Malomo, Joseph Oluwatope Adebayo, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Ayodele Olufemi Soladoye, Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Stephen Olubunmi Oguntoye, Abiola Samuel Babatunde, Oluwole Busayo Akinola . In vivo antimalarial activity and toxicological effects of methanolic extract of Cocos nucifera (Dwarf red variety) husk fibre. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(6): 504-511.
[11] Md. Asadujjaman, Ahmed Ullah Mishuk, Md. Aslam Hossain, Utpal Kumar Karmakar. Medicinal potential of Passiflora foetida L. plant extracts: Biological and pharmacological activities. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(2): 121-126.
[12] Dagmar Ehling. Integrative techniques using acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, diet, and supplements for polycystic ovary syndrome: A case report. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(6): 422-427.
[13] Md. Khirul Islam, Imran Mahmud, Sanjib Saha, Asit Baron Sarker, Himangsu Mondal, A.S.M. Monjur-Al-Hossain, Md. Anisuzzman. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Alocasia indica Schott tuber. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(5): 343-351.
[14] Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Esmail Abbasi, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Mehdi Sheikhi, Mina Lotfizadeh, Parisa Bazahang. Effects of rutin on oxidative stress in mice with kainic acid-induced seizure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(5): 337-342.
[15] Sanjib Saha, Faroque Hossain, Md. Anisuzzman, Md. Khirul Islam. Pharmacological evaluation of Musa seminifera Lour. Fruit. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(4): 253-261.
Full text



[1] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[2] Hai-feng Wei, Bai-liu Ya, Ling Zhao, Cui-fei Ye, Li Zhang, Lin Li. Evaluation of tongue manifestation of blood stasis syndrome and its relationship with blood rheological disorder in a rat model of transient brain ischemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 73-76
[3] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 76
[4] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 82
[5] Liang-ping Hu, Hui Gao. Discrimination of errors in statistical analysis of medical papers published in the first issue of 2006 in Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 98-106
[6] Yan-bo Zhu , Qi Wang, Cheng-yu Wu, Guo-ming Pang, Jian-xiong Zhao, Shi-lin Shen, Zhong-yuan Xia , Xue Yan . Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1023-1035
[7] Wei Xu, Meng Shi, Jian-gang Liu, Cheng-long Wang . Collagen protein expressions in ischemic myocardium of rats with acute myocardial infarction and effects of qi-tonifying, yin-tonifying and blood-activating herbs and detoxifying and blood-activating herbs. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1041-1047
[8] Tao Wang , Feng Qin. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Xiaoyao Powder on monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats with postpartum depression. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1075-1079
[9] Ying Xu , Chang-chun Zeng , Xiu-yu Cai , Rong-ping Guo , Guang Nie , Ying Jin. Chromaticity and optical spectrum colorimetry of the tongue color in different syndromes of primary hepatic carcinoma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1263-1271
[10] Xiang-ying Mao , Qin Bian , Zi-yin Shen. Analysis of the osteogenetic effects exerted on mesenchymal stem cell strain C3H10T1/2 by icariin via MAPK signaling pathway in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1272-1278