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Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2012, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (11): 1303-1309.doi: 10.3736/jcim20121115

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Antihepatotoxic activity of Euphorbia neriifolia extract against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice

Veena Sharma1(), Pracheta Janmeda1, Ritu Paliwal1, Shatruhan Sharma2   

  1. 1. Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Banasthali 304022, Rajasthan, India
    2. Maa Anandmayi Institute, Jaipur 302012, Rajasthan, India
  • Received:2012-04-11 Accepted:2012-05-22 Online:2012-11-20 Published:2018-11-15

Objective: To scrutinize the protective role of hydroethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia leaves (HEEN) against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male Swiss albino mice.

Methods: Experimental mice were pretreated with 150 and 400 mg/kg of HEEN, or 0.5% and 1% of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as a standard for 14 d prior to the administration of a single dose of 50 mg/kg of DENA. Levels of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome (Cyt) P450 and Cyt b5, activities of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total protein and cholesterol content in the liver tissues were measured to determine the hepatotoxicity caused by DENA.

Results: The levels of Cyt P450 and Cyt b5 were significantly increased, and GST and GSH were significantly depleted after DENA treatment (P<0.01). The activities of AST, ALT and ALP, and the total protein content were also significantly dropped off (P<0.01). The total cholesterol level was markedly increased by DENA as compared with the normal group (P<0.01). However, the pre-supplementation of HEEN showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities, and the levels of the antioxidant enzymes in the liver were significantly restored, which exhibited the dose-dependent protective effect against DENA-induced hepatotoxicity.

Conclusion: HEEN exerts its chemopreventive effects by alleviating the xenbiotic enzymes and enhancing the levels of antioxidants and biochemical assays in DENA-induced carcinogenesis by reducing the formation of free radicals.

Key words: Euphorbia, diethylnitrosamine, xenobiotic, oxidative stress, butylated hydroxyanisole, mice


Group n Cytochrome P450 Cytochrome b5
Control 6 2.22±0.14 1.78±0.21
DENA (50 mg/kg) 6 9.36±0.32** 6.14±0.26**
HEEN (150 mg/kg) plus DENA (50 mg/kg) 6 5.54±0.18△△ 4.78±0.17△△
HEEN (400 mg/kg) plus DENA (50 mg/kg) 6 3.96±0.18△△ 3.01±0.19△△
BHA (0.5%) plus DENA (50 mg/kg) 6 7.24±0.40△△ 5.21±0.25△△
BHA (1%) plus DENA (50 mg/kg) 6 5.93±0.26△△ 4.53±0.31△△


Group n GST (nmol/g) GSH (nmol CDNB/
(min·mg protein))
Control 6 175.11±0.11 1.77±0.10
DENA (50 mg/kg) 6 104.23±0.26** 1.07±0.13**
HEEN (150 mg/kg) plus DENA (50 mg/kg) 6 158.37±0.10△△ 1.59±0.13△△
HEEN (400 mg/kg) plus DENA (50 mg/kg) 6 171.61±0.07△△ 1.71±0.10△△
BHA (0.5%) plus DENA (50 mg/kg) 6 131.47±0.15△△ 1.36±0.09△△
BHA (1%) plus DENA (50 mg/kg) 6 151.12±0.12△△ 1.56±0.15△△


Group n AST (IU/L) ALT (IU/L) ALP (μmol PNP/
Total protein
Total cholesterol
Control 6 43.22±0.08 57.31±0.06 37.73±0.10 5.45±0.07 61.32±0.07
DENA (50 mg/kg) 6 13.71±0.15** 23.21±0.22** 11.03±0.14** 1.87±0.23** 102.11±0.21**
HEEN (150 mg/kg) plus
DENA (50 mg/kg)
6 35.53±0.05△△ 44.37±0.05△△ 29.64±0.13△△ 4.01±0.17△△ 78.26±0.09△△
HEEN (400 mg/kg) plus
DENA (50 mg/kg)
6 41.21±0.03△△ 54.32±0.06△△ 34.33±0.08△△ 4.85±0.15△△ 66.31±0.12△△
BHA (0.5%) plus DENA
(50 mg/kg)
6 21.23±0.08△△ 33.53±0.03△△ 19.46±0.04△△ 3.21±0.22△△ 91.56±0.07△△
BHA (1%) plus DENA
(50 mg/kg)
6 27.42±0.08△△ 38.76±0.06△△ 22.32±0.11△△ 3.78±0.21△△ 87.35±0.12△△
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