Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2014, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (1): 42-51.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60002-9

• Research Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Gastric antisecretory and cytoprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Plumeria alba Linn. leaves in rats

Manjusha Choudharya, Vipin Kumara, Surender Singhb   

  1. Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, India
    All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
  • Received:2013-08-13 Accepted:2013-10-15 Online:2014-01-10 Published:2018-10-22


This study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcerogenic property of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Plumeria alba Linn. 


Antiulcer assays were performed using the protocols of ulcer induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ethanol and pylorus ligation. The hydroalcoholic extract (HAPA), and various fractions of HAPA like, n-hexane extract (HPA), ethyl acetate extract (EAPA) and n-butanol extract (BPA) were administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg for HAPA and 100 and 200 mg/kg for fractions of extracts. Parameters of gastric secretion (volume, pH, total protein, and free and total acidity) were determined by the pylorus ligation model. Parameters like aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were also determined in ethanol-induced ulcer model. To determine the mechanism of action, role of nitric oxide was also evaluated. 


EAPA and BPA (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed gastric ulcer-healing effect in indomethacin-induced ulcer model, while HAPA (200 mg/kg) and HPA showed no significant antiulcer effect. Both EAPA and BPA showed gastric cytoprotective effect in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and inhibited gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. 


The results of the present study show that some hydroalcoholic extract of Plumeria alba L. displays antiulcer activity, as demonstrated by the significant inhibition of ulcer formation induced by different models, which is consistent with the literature report in folk medicine.

Key words: Plumeria, Anti-ulcer agents, Plant extracts, Rats




Figure 1

Effects of EAPA and BPA on macroscopic changes in ethanol-induced gastric ulcersResults showed that the rats pretreated with EAPA and BPA at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg had considerably reduced areas of gastric ulcer formation compared to rats pretreated with only Tween-80 (ulcer control). A: Alcohol control group; B: EAPA group; C: BPA group; D: Ranitidine group. EAPA: ethyl acetate extract; BPA: n-butanol extract."

Figure 2

Histological slices of the stomach tissues stained by hematoxylin and eosin from rats submitted to ethanol-induced gastric ulcer assay (Light microscopy, × 100) A: Control group damaged by ethanol; B: EAPA group treated with ethanol after pretreatment with EAPA; C: BPA group treated with ethanol after pretreatment with BPA; D: Ranitidine group treated with ethanol after pretreatment with ranitidine.EAPA: ethyl acetate extract; BPA: n-butanol extract."


Figure 3

Effects of EAPA and BPA on macroscopic changes in the pylorus ligation in ratsResults showed that EAPA (100 mg/kg) and BPA (200 mg/kg) treatment prevented the gastric ulcer by reducing the acid secretion as compared to the vehicle control group.A: Vehicle control group; B: EAPA group; C: BPA group; D: Ranitidine group.EAPA: ethyl acetate extract; BPA: n-butanol extract."

Figure 4

Microscopic studies of the stomach tissues stained by hematoxylin and eosin from rats submitted to pylorus ligationinduced gastric ulcer assay (Light microscopy, × 100)A: Control group damaged by pylorus ligation; B: EAPA group treated with pylorus ligation after pretreatment with EAPA; C: BPA group treated with pylorus ligation after pretreatment with BPA; D: Ranitidine group treated with pylorus ligation after pretreatment with ranitidine.EAPA: ethyl acetate extract; BPA: n-butanol extract."


[1] Klein LC Jr, Gandolfi RB, Santin JR, Lemos M , Cechinel Filho V, de Andrade SF.Antiulcerogenic activity of extract, fractions, and some compounds obtained from Polygala cyparissias St. Hillaire & Moquin(Polygalaceae)[J]. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 2010,381(2):121-126
doi: 10.1007/s00210-009-0485-x
[2] Srikanth J, Muralidharan P . Antiulcer activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit extract[J]. J Sci Res, 2009,1(2):345-352
[3] Lima ZP, Severi JA, Pellizzon CH, Brito AR, Solis PN, Cáceres A, Girón LM, Vilegas W, Hiruma-Lima CA. Can the aqueous decoction of mango flowers be used as an antiulcer agent? [J] Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 106(1):29-37.
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.11.032 pmid: 16500058
[4] Konturek SJ, Konturek PC, Brzozowski T, Konturek JW, Pawlik WW . From nerves and hormones to bacteria in the stomach; Nobel prize for achievements in gastrology during last century[J]. J Physiol Pharmacol, 2005,56(4):507-530
[5] Hardman JG, Limbrid LE, Goodman CS, Gilman BT . Goodman and Gilman’s: The pharmacological basis of therapeutics.10th ed[M]. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2001: 1005-1019
[6] Valle DL. Peptic ulcer diseases and related disorders. In: Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine.16th ed[M]. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005: 1746-1762
[7] Malfertheiner P, Chan FK , McColl KE.Peptic ulcer disease[J]. Lancet, 2009,374(9699):1449-1461
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60938-7
[8] Sheen E, Triadafilopoulos G . Adverse effects of long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy[J]. Dig Dis Sci, 2011,56(4):931-950
doi: 10.1007/s10620-010-1560-3 pmid: 21365243
[9] Yuan Y, Padol IT, Hunt RH . Peptic ulcer disease today[J]. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2006,3(2):80-89
[10] Stege PW, Davicino RC, Vega AE, Casali YA, Correa S, Micalizzi B . Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of Larrea divaricata Cav(jarilla) against Helicobacter pylori[J]. Phytomedicine, 2006,13(9-10):724-727
doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2005.06.008
[11] Goel RK, Sairam K . Anti-ulcer drugs from indigenous sources with emphasis on Musa sapientum, tamrabhasma, Asparagus racemosus and Zingiber officinale[J]. Indian J Pharmacol, 2002,34(2):100-110
[12] Indran M, Mahmood AA, Kuppusamy UR . Protective effect of Carica papaya L leaf extract against alcohol induced acute gastric damage and blood oxidative stress in rats[J]. West Indian Med J, 2008,57(4):323-326
[13] Mahmood AA, Mariod AA, Al-Bayaty F, Ibrahim S, Abdel-Wahab SI . Anti-ulcerogenic activity of Gynura procumbens leaf extract against experimentally-induced gastric lesions in rats[J]. J Med Plants Res, 2010,4(8):685-691
[14] Nandkarni KM. Dr. K. M. Nadkarni's Indian materia medica.3rd ed[M]. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, 1976: 561-993
[15] .[ THER].Cowen DV. Flowering trees and shrubs in India. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1983.
[16] Raju RA . Wild plants of Indian sub-continent and their economic use[M]. New Delhi: CBS Publishers & Distributors, 2000: 145
[17] Hartwell JL . Plants used against cancer: A survey[M]. Lawrence: Quarterman Publications, Inc, 1982: 408
[18] Asolkar LV, Kakkar KK, Chakre OJ . Second supplement to glossary of Indian medicinal plants with active principles.Part-1(A-K)[M]. New Delhi: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, 1992: 173
[19] Rengaswami S, Venkatarao E . Chemical components of Plumeria alba[J]. Proc Indian Acad Sci, 1960,52(A):173-181
doi: 10.1007/BF03048969
[20] Coppen JJW, Cobb AL . The occurrence of iridoids in Plumeria and Allamanda[J]. Phytochemistry, 1983,22(1):125-128
doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)80071-0
[21] Khandelwal KR . Practical pharmacognosy techniques and experiments.3rd ed[M]. Pune: Nirali Prakashan, 1996: 171-172
[22] Wagner H, Bladt S, Zgainski EM . Plant drug analysis: A thin layer chromatography atlas[M]. Berlin: Springer, 1984: 320
[23] Djahanguiri B . The production of acute gastric ulceration by indomethacin in the rat[J]. Scand J Gastroenterol, 1969,4(3):265-267
[24] Mizui T, Doteuchi M . Effect of polyamines on acidified ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats[J]. Jpn J Pharmacol, 1983,33(5):939-945
doi: 10.1254/jjp.33.939 pmid: 6580476
[25] Shay H, Komarov SA, Fels SS, Meranze D, Gruenstein M, Siplet H . A simple method for the uniform production of gastric ulceration in the rat[J]. Gastroenterology, 1945,5:43-61
doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(73)90344-5 pmid: 4715759
[26] Matsuda H, Li Y, Yoshikawa M. Roles of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves, endogenous nitric oxide, sulfhydryls,prostaglandins in gastroprotection by momordin Ic,an oleanolic acid oligoglycoside on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats[J].Life Sci, 1999, 65(2):PL27-32
doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00216-7 pmid: 10403490
[27] Ganguly AK . A method for quantitative assessment of experimentally produced ulcers in the stomach of albino rats[J]. Experientia, 1969,25(11):1224
doi: 10.1007/BF01900290
[28] Naik Y, Jayaram S, Harish Nayaka MA, Lakshman, Dharmesh SM . Gastroprotective effect of swallow root(Decalepis hamiltonii) extract: possible involvement of H+-K+-ATPase inhibition and antioxidative mechanism[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2007,112(1):173-179
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2007.02.021
[29] Mard SA, Bahari Z, Eshaghi N, Farbood Y . Antiulcerogenic effect of Securigera securidaca L. seed extract on various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats[J]. Pak J Biol Sci, 2008,11(23):2619-2623
doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.2619.2623
[30] Sannomiya M , Fonseca VB, da Silva MA, Rocha LR, Dos Santos LC, Hiruma-Lima CA, Souza Brito AR, Vilegas W.Flavonoids and antiulcerogenic activity from Byrsonima crassa leaves extracts[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2005,97(1):1-6
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.053 pmid: 15652267
[31] Massignani JJ, Lemos M, Maistro EL, Schaphauser HP, Jorge RF, Sousa JP , Bastos JK, de Andrade SF.Antiulcerogenic activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia on different experimental models in rats[J]. Phytother Res, 2009,23(10):1355-1360
doi: 10.1002/ptr.v23:10
[32] Batista LM, de Almeida ABA, de Morais Lima R, de Sousa Falc?o H, Ferreira AL, de Pietro Magri L, Coelho RG, Calvo TR, Vilegas W, Monteiro Souza Brito AR . Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract and fractions obtained from Syngonanthus bisulcatus Rul[J]. Rec Nat Prod, 2013,7(1):35-44
[33] Scarpignato C, Hunt RH . Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-related injury to the gastrointestinal tract: clinical picture, pathogenesis, and prevention[J]. Gastroenterol Clin North Am, 2010,39(3):433-464
doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2010.08.010
[34] Vane JR, Botting RM. Mechanism of action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am JTHER].Vane JR, Botting RM. Mechanism of action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am[J] Med. 1998; 104(3A):2S-8S.
doi: 10.3109/07357909809011705 pmid: 9572314
[35] Whittle BJ . Gastrointestinal effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs[J]. Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 2003,17(3):301-313
doi: 10.1007/BF03312177 pmid: 10390123
[36] Akhtar AH, Ahmad KU . Anti-ulcerogenic evaluation of the methanolic extracts of some indigenous medicinal plants of Pakistan in aspirin-ulcerated rats[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 1995,46(1):1-6
doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(94)01220-T
[37] Atta AH, Nasr SM, Mouneir SM . Antiulcerogenic effect of some plant extracts[J]. Nat Prod Rad, 2005,4(4):258-263
[38] Wallace JL. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the gastrointestinal tract. Mechanisms of protection and healing: current knowledge and future research. Am[J] Med. 2001; 110(1A):19S-23S.
doi: 10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00631-8
[39] Al-wabel NA, Hassan A, Abbas H , Mucosa H.Antiulcerogenic effect of camel milk against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats[J].Webmed Central Vet Med, 2012, 3(3):WHCDD2804
[40] Lewis DA, Hanson PJ . Anti-ulcer drugs of plant origin[J]. Prog Med Chem, 1991,28:201-231
doi: 10.1016/S0079-6468(08)70365-5
[41] Sikiri? P, Seiwerth S, Grabarevi? Z, Rucman R, Petek M, Jagi? V, Turkovi? B, Rotkvi? I, Mise S, Zorici? I, Konjevoda P, Perovi? D, Jurina L, Separovi? J, Hanzevacki M, Artukovi? B, Bratuli? M, Tisljar M, Gjurasin M, Mikli? P, Stanci?-Rokotov D, Slobodnjak Z, Jelovac N, Marovi? A . The influence of a novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester and L-arginine effects on stomach mucosa integrity and blood pressure[J]. Eur J Pharmacol, 1997,332(1):23-33
doi: 10.1016/S0014-2999(97)01033-9
[42] Myagmar BE, Shinno E, Ichiba T, Aniya Y . Antioxidant activity of medicinal herb Rhodococcum vitis-idaea on galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats[J]. Phytomedicine, 2004,11(5):416-423
doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2003.04.003
[43] Andreo MA, Ballesteros KV, Hiruma-Lima CA , Machado da Rocha LR, Souza Brito AR, Vilegas W.Effect of Mouriri pusa extracts on experimentally induced gastric lesions in rodents: role of endogenous sulfhydryls compounds and nitric oxide in gastroprotection[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2006,107(3):431-441
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.04.001
[44] Rios ER, Rocha NF, Venancio ET, Moura BA, Feitosa ML, Cerqueira GS, Soares PM , Woods DJ, de Sousa FC, Leal LK, Fonteles MM.Mechanisms involved in the gastroprotective activity of esculin on acute gastric lesions in mice[J]. Chem Biol Interact, 2010,188(1):246-254
doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2010.07.020 pmid: 20678495
[45] Tanaka J, Yuda Y, Inouye S, Yamakawa T . The role of nitric oxide in the gastric acid secretion induced by ischemia-reperfusion in the pylorus-ligated rat[J]. Eur J Pharmacol, 2001,424(1):69-74
doi: 10.1016/S0014-2999(01)01119-0
[46] Kochar NI, Chandewal AV, Bakal RL, Kochar PN . Nitric oxide and the gastrointestinal tract[J]. Int J Pharm, 2011,7(1):31-39
doi: 10.1097/00075198-199904000-00010
[47] Sravani P, Jayasri P , Samiulla, Ershad Khan P, Nishad Khan P.Review on natural antiulcer agents[J]. Int J Pharm Ind Res, 2011,1(1):67-70
[48] Asuzu IU, Onu OU . Anti-ulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of Combretum dolichopetalum root[J]. Int J Crude Drug Res, 1990,28(1):27-32
doi: 10.3109/13880209009082770
[49] Nwafor PA, Okwuasaba FK, Binda LG . Antidiarrhoeal and antiulcerogenic effects of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root in rats[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2000,72(3):421-427
doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00261-0
[50] Martín MJ, Marhuenda E, Pérez-Guerrero C, Franco JM . Antiulcer effect of naringin on gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats[J]. Pharmacology, 1994,49(3):144-150
doi: 10.1159/000139228
[51] La Casa C, Villegas I , Alarcón de la Lastra C, Motilva V, Martín Calero MJ.Evidence for protective and antioxidant properties of rutin, a natural flavone, against ethanol induced gastric lesions[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2000,71(1-2):45-53
doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00174-9
[52] Awaad AS, Maitland DJ, Soliman GA . Hepatoprotective activity of Schouwia thebica webb[J]. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2006,16(17):4624-4628
doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.06.011 pmid: 16797983
[53] Aguwa CN, Okunji CO . Gastrointestinal studies of Pyrenacantha staudtii leaf extracts[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 1986,15(1):45-55
doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(86)90103-0 pmid: 3713227
[1] Wan-jun Guo, Yi Wang, Yu Deng, Lin-yan Cheng, Xin Liu, Ruo-fan Xi, Sheng-jie Zhu, Xin-yi Feng, Liang Hua, Kan Ze, Jian-yong Zhu, Dong-jie Guo, Fu-lun Li. Therapeutic effects of the extract of Sancao Formula, a Chinese herbal compound, on imiquimod-induced psoriasis via cysteine-rich protein 61. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 376-384.
[2] Bing-rong Li, Shi-yun Shao, Long Yuan, Ru Jia, Jian Sun, Qing Ji, Hua Sui, Li-hong Zhou, Yi Zhang, Hui Liu, Qi Li, Yan Wang, Bi-meng Zhang. Effects of mild moxibustion on intestinal microbiome and NLRP3 inflammasome in rats with 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 144-157.
[3] Sitthichai Iamsaard, Supatcharee Arun, Jaturon Burawat, Supataechasit Yannasithinon, Saranya Tongpan, Sudtida Bunsueb, Natthapol Lapyuneyong, Pannawat Choowong-in, Nareelak Tangsrisakda, Chadaporn Chaimontri, Wannisa Sukhorum. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and reproductive toxicity of aqueous extract of Thai Mucuna pruriens seeds. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(3): 265-273.
[4] Stefania Lamponi, Anna Maria Aloisi, Claudia Bonechi, Marco Consumi, Alessandro Donati, Gemma Leone, Claudio Rossi, Gabriella Tamasi, Luana Ghiandai, Ersilia Ferrini, Paolo Fiorenzani, Ilaria Ceccarelli, Agnese Magnani. Evaluation of in vitro cell and blood compatibility and in vivo analgesic activity of plant-derived dietary supplements. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(3): 213-220.
[5] Rohitash Jamwal. Bioavailable curcumin formulations: A review of pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(6): 367-374.
[6] Supakanya Kumkarnjana, Rutt Suttisri, Ubonthip Nimmannit, Thongchai Koobkokkruad, Chutichot Pattamadilok, Nontima Vardhanabhuti . Anti-adipogenic effect of flavonoids from Chromolaena odorata leaves in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(6): 427-434.
[7] Morufu Eyitayo Balogun, Elizabeth Enohnyaket Besong, Jacinta Nkechi Obimma, Ogochukwu Sophia Mbamalu, Fankou Serges Athanase Djobissie. Protective roles of Vigna subterranea (Bambara nut) in rats with aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(5): 342-349.
[8] Shohini Chakraborty, Nashra Afaq, Neelam Singh, Sukanta Majumdar. Antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativaThuja orientalis and Psidium guajava leaf extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(5): 350-357.
[9] Bruno José Martins Da Silva, Amanda Anastácia Pinto Hage, Edilene Oliveira Silva, Ana Paula Drummond Rodrigues. Medicinal plants from the Brazilian Amazonian region and their antileishmanial activity: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 211-222.
[10] Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Raphael Ellis Teme. Hot aqueous leaf extract of Lasianthera africana (Icacinaceae) attenuates rifampicin-isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 263-272.
[11] Musa Toyin Yakubu, Abdulquadri Funmbi Olutoye. Aphrodisiac activity of aqueous extract of Anthonotha macrophylla P. Beauv. leaves in female Wistar rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(5): 400-408.
[12] Nisha Panth, Keshav Raj Paudel, Rajendra Karki. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(5): 359-373.
[13] JiaXia, Li-qunHe, XiaoSu. Interventional mechanisms of herbs or herbal extracts on renal interstitial fibrosis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(3): 165-173.
[14] Santu Kumar Saha, Sourav Roy, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Ultra-highly diluted plant extracts of Hydrastis canadensis and Marsdenia condurango induce epigenetic modifications and alter gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in vitro. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(6): 400-411.
[15] Wei Chiang Chan Eric, Kuin Wong Siu. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium and Alpinia purpurata: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(6): 368-379.
Full text



[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[3] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[4] Xue-mei Liu, Qi-fu Huang, Yun-ling Zhang, Jin-li Lou, Hong-sheng Liu, Hong Zheng. Effects of Tribulus terrestris L. saponion on apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 45-50
[5] . Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication (Chinese version, part two). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1001-1005
[6] Daniel Weber, Janelle M Wheat, Geoffrey M Currie. Inflammation and cancer: Tumor initiation, progression and metastasis,and Chinese botanical medicines. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1006-1013
[7] Hong Liu , Guo-liang Zhang, Li Shen , Zhen Zeng, Bao-luo Zhou, Cheng-hai Liu, Guang Nie . Application and evaluation of a pseudotyped virus assay for screening herbs for anti-H5Nl avian influenza virus. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1036-1040
[8] Zhao-guo Li . A discussion of English translation of 1995 and 1997 Chinese National Standards of Traditional Chinese Medical Terminologies for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1090-1096
[9] Rui Jin, Bing Zhang. A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property (Part 1). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1198-1205
[10] Hui-min Liu, Xian-bo Wang, Yu-juan Chang, Li-li Gu. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of integrative medicine therapy for treatment of chronic severe hepatitis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1211-1228