Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2014, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (2): 115-120.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60011-X

• Research Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Protective effect of ginger volatile oil against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats: A light microscopic evaluation

Amir Rashidiana, Saeed Mehrzadia, Ali Reza Ghannadib, Parvin Mahzoonic, Samira Sadrd, Mohsen Minaiyane   

  1. Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
    Department of Clinical Pathology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
  • Received:2013-09-23 Accepted:2014-01-13 Online:2014-03-10 Published:2014-03-15


Ulcerative colitis is a chronically recurrent inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin. In the present study, the effect of ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) volatile oil on a rat model of colitis was evaluated. 


Volatile oil of ginger with doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, prednisolone (4 mg/kg), or vehicle were administered orally to groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6) for 5 d. Animals were randomly divided into 6 groups, each group consisting of 6 rats. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 2 mL of 4% (v/v) acetic acid solution. All rats were sacrificed 24 h later and the tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and histopathologically. 


Ginger volatile oil with all doses reduced colon weight/length ratio (P < 0.01) and the effects were similar to the reference drugs. Higher oral doses of volatile oil (200 and 400 mg/kg) reduced ulcer severity (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01), ulcer area (P < 0.01) and ulcer index (P < 0.01). On the other hand, evaluation of microscopic scores showed that the dose of 400 mg/kg of volatile oil was effective to reduce inflammation severity (P < 0.01) and inflammation extent (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. 


It is concluded that ginger volatile oil could effectively reduce symptoms of experimental colitis in a dose-dependent manner.

Key words: Ginger, Zingiber officinale, Oils, volatile, Acetic acid, Colitis, Rats


Figure 1

Macroscopic presentation of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats A: Colitis in control group treated with vehicle; B: Colitis in prednisolone-treated group; C, D and E: Colitis in ginger volatile oil-treated group, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively."

Figure 2

Microscopic presentation of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats stained by haematoxylin and eosin (Light microscopy, ×20) A: Normal colon treated with vehicle, mucus layer and crypts are normal and leucocyte infiltration is absent; B: Colitis in control group treated with vehicle, mucosal and submucusal inflammation as well as crypt damage and leucocyte infiltration are evident (arrows); C: Prednisolone-treated colitis; D: Ginger volatile oil (400 mg/kg)-treated colitis."



[1] Fiocchi C . Inflammatory bowel disease: etiology and pathogenesis[J]. Gastroenterology, 1998,115(1):182-205
doi: 10.1016/S0016-5085(98)70381-6 pmid: 9649475
[2] Nielsen OH, Rask-Madsen J . Mediators of inflammation in chronic inflammatory bowel disease[J]. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl, 1996,216:149-159
doi: 10.3109/00365529609094569 pmid: 8726287
[3] Sartor RB . Current concepts of the etiology and pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease[J]. Gastroenterol Clin North Am, 1995,24(3):475-507
pmid: 8809232
[4] Seo HG, Takata I, Nakamura M, Tatsumi H, Suzuki K, Fujii J, Taniguchi N . Induction of nitric oxide synthase and concomitant suppression of superoxide dismutases in experimental colitis in rats[J]. Arch Biochem Biophys, 1995,324(1):41-47
doi: 10.1006/abbi.1995.9932
[5] Loguercio C , D’Argenio G, Delle Cave M, Cosenza V, Della Valle N, Mazzacca G, del Vecchio Blanco C.Direct evidence of oxidative damage in acute and chronic phases of experimental colitis in rats[J]. Dig Dis Sci, 1996,41(6):1204-1211
doi: 10.1007/BF02088238
[6] Carty E, De Brabander M, Feakins RM, Rampton DS . Measurement of in vivo rectal mucosal cytokine and eicosanoid production in ulcerative colitis using filter paper[J]. Gut, 2000,46(4):487-492
doi: 10.1136/gut.46.4.487
[7] MacPherson BR, Pfeiffer CJ . Experimental production of diffuse colitis in rats[J]. Digestion, 1978,17(2):135-150
doi: 10.1159/000198104 pmid: 627326
[8] Sharon P, Stenson WF . Metabolism of arachidonic acid in acetic acid colitis in rats. Similarity to human inflammatory bowel disease[J]. Gastroenterology, 1985,88(1 Pt 1):55-63
doi: 10.1016/S0016-5085(85)80132-3
[9] González R, Rodríguez S, Romay C, Ancheta O, González A, Armesto J, Remirez D, Merino N . Anti-inflammatory activity of phycocyanin extract in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats[J]. Pharmacol Res, 1999,39(1):55-59
doi: 10.1006/phrs.1998.0409 pmid: 10366332
[10] Afzal M, Al-Hadidi D, Menon M, Pesek J, Dhami MS . Ginger: an ethnomedical, chemical and pharmacological review[J]. Drug Metabol Drug Interact, 2001,18(3-4):159-190
doi: 10.1515/DMDI.2001.18.3-4.159 pmid: 11791883
[11] Chang CP, Chang JY, Wang FY, Chang JG. The effect of Chinese medicinal herb Zingiber officinale rhizome extract on cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. JTHER].Chang CP, Chang JY, Wang FY, Chang JG. The effect of Chinese medicinal herb Zingiber officinale rhizome extract on cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.[J] Ethnopharmacol. 1995; 48(1):13-19 .
doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(95)01275-I
[12] Jeyakumar SM, Nalini N, Menon VP . Antioxidant activity of ginger(Zingiber officinale Rosc) in rats fed a high diet[J]. Med Sci Res, 1999,27(5):341-344
[13] Ippoushi K, Azuma K, Ito H, Horie H, Higashio H . [6]-Gingerol inhibits nitric oxide synjournal in activated J774.1 mouse macrophages and prevents peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration reactions[J]. Life Sci, 2003,73(26):3427-3437
doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2003.06.022
[14] Zhou HL, Deng YM, Xie QM . The modulatory effects of the volatile oil of ginger on the cellular immune response in vitro and in vivo in mice[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2006,105(1-2):301-305
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.10.022
[15] European Pharmacopoeia . 4th ed[M]. Strasbourg: European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines, Council of Europe, 2002: 183-184
[16] Sandra P, Bicchi C. Capillary gas chromatography in essential oil analysis. Heidelberg:THER].Sandra P, Bicchi C. Capillary gas chromatography in essential oil analysis. Heidelberg: Verlagsgruppe Huthig Jehle Rehm GmbH. 1987.
[17] Mclafferty FW, Stauffer DB. The important peak index of the registry of mass spectral data. New York:THER].Mclafferty FW, Stauffer DB. The important peak index of the registry of mass spectral data. New York:Wiley-Interscience. 1991.
doi: 10.1016/1044-0305(93)85046-Z
[18] Adams RP. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Carol Stream: Allured Publishing Corporation. 1995.
[19] Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Autore G, Maiello FM, Di Carlo G, Capasso F . Acetic acid-induced colitis in normal and essential fatty acid deficient rats[J]. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1995,272(1):469-475
doi: 10.1002/jps.2600840128 pmid: 7815363
[20] Morris GP, Beck PL, Herridge MS, Depew WT, Szewczuk MR, Wallace JL . Hapten-induced model of chronic inflammation and ulceration in the rat colon[J]. Gastroenterology, 1989,96(3):795-803
doi: 10.1016/0016-5085(89)90904-9 pmid: 2914642
[21] Minaiyan M, Ghannadi AR, Karimzadeh A . Antiulcerogenic effects of ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in rats[J]. Daru, 2006,14(2):97-101
[22] Cooper HS, Murthy SN, Shah RS, Sedergran DJ . Clinicopathologic study of dextran sulfate sodium experimental murine colitis[J]. Lab Invest, 1993,69(2):238-249
pmid: 8350599
[23] Dieleman LA, Palmen MJ, Akol H, Bloemena E , Pe?a AS, Meuwissen SG, Van Rees EP.Chronic experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium(DSS) is characterized by Th1 and Th2 cytokines[J]. Clin Exp Immunol, 1998,114(3):385-391
doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.1998.00728.x
[24] Elson CO, Sartor RB, Tennyson GS, Riddell RH . Experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease[J]. Gastroenterology, 1995,109(4):1344-1367
doi: 10.1016/0016-5085(95)90599-5 pmid: 7557106
[25] Srivastava KC, Mustafa T . Ginger(Zingiber officinale) and rheumatic disorders[J]. Med Hypotheses, 1989,29(1):25-28
doi: 10.1016/0306-9877(89)90162-X pmid: 2501634
[26] Grzanna R, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG . Ginger — an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions[J]. J Med Food, 2005,8(2):125-132
doi: 10.1089/jmf.2005.8.125 pmid: 16117603
[27] Young HY, Luo YL, Cheng HY, Hsieh WC, Liao JC, Peng WH . Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of [6]-gingerol[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2005,96(1-2):207-210
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.009 pmid: 15588672
[28] Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Al-Sawan SM, Alnaqeeb MA, Khan I, Ali M . The use of ginger(Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent[J]. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2002,67(6):475-478
doi: 10.1054/plef.2002.0441
[29] Bliddal H, Rosetzsky A, Schlichting P, Weidner MS, Andersen LA, Ibfelt HH, Christensen K, Jensen ON, Barslev J . A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis[J]. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2000,8(1):9-12
doi: 10.1053/joca.1999.0264
[30] Ahmed RS, Seth V, Banerjee BD . Influence of dietary ginger(Zingiber officinales Rosc) on antioxidant defense system in rat: comparison with ascorbic acid[J]. Indian J Exp Biol, 2000,38(6):604-606
[1] Nadiah Razali, Aidiahmad Dewa, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Nornisah Mohamed, Nurul Maizan Manshor. Mechanisms underlying the vascular relaxation activities of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum in thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 46-58.
[2] Mary Abiola Okesola, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo. Neuromodulatory effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract in rats with lead-induced oxidative stress. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(2): 125-131.
[3] Morufu Eyitayo Balogun, Elizabeth Enohnyaket Besong, Jacinta Nkechi Obimma, Ogochukwu Sophia Mbamalu, Fankou Serges Athanase Djobissie. Protective roles of Vigna subterranea (Bambara nut) in rats with aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(5): 342-349.
[4] Bruno José Martins Da Silva, Amanda Anastácia Pinto Hage, Edilene Oliveira Silva, Ana Paula Drummond Rodrigues. Medicinal plants from the Brazilian Amazonian region and their antileishmanial activity: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 211-222.
[5] Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Raphael Ellis Teme. Hot aqueous leaf extract of Lasianthera africana (Icacinaceae) attenuates rifampicin-isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 263-272.
[6] Mohaddese Mahboubi. Effectiveness of Myrtus communis in the treatment of hemorrhoids. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(5): 351-358.
[7] Marjan Ahmad Shirvani, Narges Motahari-Tabari, Abbas Alipour. Use of ginger versus stretching exercises for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(4): 295-301.
[8] Wei Chiang Chan Eric, Kuin Wong Siu. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium and Alpinia purpurata: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(6): 368-379.
[9] Kylie Connolly, Douglas Jackson, Candice Pullen, Andrew Fenning. Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism by Crassostrea gigas oyster extract inhibits noradrenaline-induced vascular contraction in Wistar rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(3): 194-200.
[10] Hussein O. B. Oloyede, Matthew C. Adaja, Taofeek O. Ajiboye, Musa O. Salawu. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 105-114.
[11] Udhaya Lavinya Baskaran, Sherry Joseph Martin, Rasool Mahaboobkhan, Sabina Evan Prince. Protective role of Triphala, an Indian traditional herbal formulation, against the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene in Wistar albino rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 115-121.
[12] Anirudha A. Lande, Shirishkumar D. Ambavade, Uma S. Swami, Prafulla P. Adkara Prashant D. Ambavade, Arun B. Waghamare. Saponins isolated from roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum reduce acute and chronic inflammation and histone deacetylase. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(1): 25-33.
[13] Elizabeth Abidemi Balogun, Sylvia Orume Malomo, Joseph Oluwatope Adebayo, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Ayodele Olufemi Soladoye, Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Stephen Olubunmi Oguntoye, Abiola Samuel Babatunde, Oluwole Busayo Akinola . In vivo antimalarial activity and toxicological effects of methanolic extract of Cocos nucifera (Dwarf red variety) husk fibre. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(6): 504-511.
[14] Xin-fang Zhang, Ji Zhu, Wen-ye Geng, Shu-jun Zhao, Chuan-wei Jiang, Sheng-rong Cai, Miao Cheng, Chuan-yun Zhou, Zi-bing Liu. Electroacupuncture at Feishu (BL13) and Zusanli (ST36) down-regulates the expression of orexins and their receptors in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 417-424.
[15] Urmila Aswar, Mayuri Gurav, Ganesh More, Khaled Rashed, Manoj Aswar. Effect of aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. on postmenopausal syndrome in ovariectomized rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 439-446.
Full text



[1] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[2] Yi-ting He, Qing-lin Zha, Jian-ping Yu, Yong Tan, Cheng Lu, Ai-ping Lv. Principal factor analysis of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlations with efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 32-36
[3] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[4] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 82
[5] Guo-hong Yuan, Xiao-jing Pang, He-chao Ma. Synergic effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in reducing toxicity of cytoxan in tumor-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 83-88
[6] Ning-qun Wang, Liang-duo Jiang, Zong-xing Li. Research progress in asthma-related quality of life. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 93-97
[7] Yan-bo Zhu , Qi Wang, Cheng-yu Wu, Guo-ming Pang, Jian-xiong Zhao, Shi-lin Shen, Zhong-yuan Xia , Xue Yan . Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1023-1035
[8] Bing Hu , Hong-mei An , Ke-ping Shen , Qin Du. Senescence-inducing effects of Chinese herbal medicine Tenglong Buzhong Decoction on human colon carcinoma LS-174-T cells and the mechanism. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1048-1052
[9] Jing-yuan Mao, Chang-xiao Liu, Heng-he Wang, Guang-li Wei , Zhen-peng Zhang, Jie Xing, Wang Xian liang , Ying-fei Bi . Effects of Shenmai Injection on serum concentration and pharmacokinetics of digoxin in dogs with heart failure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1070-1074
[10] Zhi-mei Wang, Bin Zhang. A study on translation of ellipses in Huangdi Neijing from perspective of hermeneutic theory. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1097-1100