Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2017, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (5): 351-358.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60340-6

• Review • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effectiveness of Myrtus communis in the treatment of hemorrhoids

Mohaddese Mahboubi   

  1. Department of Microbiology, Medicinal Plants Research Center of Barij, Kashan 1178, Iran
  • Received:2017-01-03 Accepted:2017-02-17 Online:2017-09-15 Published:2017-09-15
  • Contact: Mohaddese Mahboubi, PhD; E-mail:;

Myrtus communis is an important plant in the treatment of many different diseases. The aim of this review was to determine the importance of M. communis essential oil in the treatment of hemorrhoids. For preparing this manuscript, the information was extracted from different resources. The results of clinical studies showed that M. communis essential oil (lotion or ointment) can significantly improve bleeding, permanent pain, pain during defecation, anal irritation, anal itching and anal heaviness in patients with hemorrhoids types I and II. M. communis was also effective in treating patients who did not respond to current chemical treatments (anti-hemorrhoids ointment). Further clinical studies should look into designing a suppository form of M. communis essential oil and compare its effect with the lotion and ointment forms.

Key words: Myrtus communis, Oils, volatile, Ointments, Hemorrhoids

1 Tse GN.Practical management of hemorrhoids: pitfalls and plain sailing.Can Fam Physician. 1988; 34: 655-659.
2 Chashti M. Exir A’azam. Tehran: Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine.2008: 805-807. Persian.
3 Ibn Sina AHA. Al Qanun Fi Al Tibb (Avicenna canon of medicine). Beirut: Dar and Maktab E Alhalal. 2009: 48. Arabic.
4 Razi B. Kholase-Al Tajarob. Tehran: Foundation for Studies the History of Islamic Medicine and Supplementary Medicine.1997: 422-423. Persian.
5 Razi A. Alhavi-in-Teb. Lebnan: Dar-O-Ehya Toras.2002: 422-423. Arabic.
6 Jorjani SE. Zakhire Kharazmshahi. Tehran: Tehran University of Medical Sciences.1976. Persian.
7 Ahwaz A. Kamel-O-Sanaye-O-Tabiaat. Qom: Foundation for Revitalisation of Natural Medicine.2010: 23. Persian.
8 Arzani A.Akbari’s medicine (Tebe Akbari). Qom: Jalal Al Din Press. 2008. 805-807. Persian.
9 Zokaii. Qarabadin-e Zokaii. Tehran: Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine.2008. Persian.
10 Ghaeni Heravi MS. Qarabadin-e Salehi. Tehran: Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine.2004. Persian.
11 Aghili Shirazi SM. Qarabadin-e Kabir. Tehran: Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine.1970. Persian.
12 Yang HK.Hemorrhoids. Berlin: Springer. 2014: 47-63.
13 Al-Biruni AR. Kitab-al-Saydanah fi’al-Tibb. Tehran: Academy of Persian Language and Literature.2004. Arabic.
14 Özcan M, Akgül A.Antioxidant activity of extracts and essential oils from Turkish spices on sunflower oil.Acta Alimentaria. 1995; 24(1): 81-90.
15 Özcan M, Boyraz N.Antifungal properties of some herb decoctions.Eur Food Res Technol. 2000; 212(1): 86-88.
16 Saǧdıç O, Özcan M.Antibacterial activity of Turkish spice hydrosols.Food Control. 2003; 14(3):141-143.
17 Ozcan MM, Uyar B, Unver A.Antibacterial effect of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) leaves extract on microorganisms. Arch Lebensmittelhyg. 2015; 66(1): 18-21.
18 Chalchat JC, Figueredo G, Özcan MM, Unver A.Effect of hydrodistillation and microwave distillation extraction methods on chemical compositions of essential oil of pickling herb and myrtle plants.South West J Hortic Biol Environ. 2010; 1(2): 133-141.
19 Alipour G, Dashti S, Hosseinzadeh H.Review of pharmacological effects ofMyrtus communis L. and its active constituents. Phytother Res. 2014; 28(8): 1125-1136.
20 Mahboubi M.Myrtus communis L. and its application in treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 193(4): 481-489.
21 Bouzabata A, Casanova J, Bighelli A, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L, Tomi F.TheGenus myrtus L. in Algeria: composition and biological aspects of essential oils from M. communis and M. nivellei: a review. Chem Biodivers. 2016; 13(6): 672-680.
22 Aleksic V, Knezevic P.Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of extracts and essential oils ofMyrtus communis L. Microbiol Res. 2014; 169(4): 240-254.
23 Ogur R.Studies withMyrtus communis L.: anticancer properties. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 3(4): 135-137.
24 Mimica-Dukić N, Bugarin D, Grbović S, Mitić-Culafić D, Vuković-Gacić B, Orcić D, Jovin E, Couladis M.Essential oil ofMyrtus communis L. as a potential antioxidant and antimutagenic agents. Molecules. 2010; 15(4): 2759-2770.
25 Mahdizadeh S, Khaleghi Ghadiri M, Gorji A.Avicenna’s canon of medicine: a review of analgesics and antiinflammatory substances.Avicenna J Phytomed. 2015; 5(3): 182-202.
26 MirHeidar H. Giahi Maaref. Tehran: Islamic Cultural Publication Office.1994. Persian.
27 Jorjani SI. Hidden Alaei (Khofi Alaei). Tehran: Ettelaat Publications. 1998. Persian.
28 Mikaili P, Shayegh J, Asghari MH, Sarahroodi S, Sharifi M.Common Iranian traditional herbal medicine with cold nature used as infusion.J Am Sci. 2011; 7(9): 87-91.
29 Banov LB Jr.Proctology in ancient Egypt: its continuing influence on the management of anorectal diseases.South Med J. 1965; 58: 1366-1369.
30 Montvale N, Fleming T.PDR for herbal medicines. Montville: Medical Economics Company. 2000: 516-520.
31 Gan T, Li YD, Wang Y, Yang J. Traditional Chinese medicine herbs for preventing bleeding from haemorrhoids. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2010; 6(10): CD006791.
32 Tuberoso CI, Barra A, Angioni A, Sarritzu E, Pirisi FM.Chemical composition of volatiles in Sardinian myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) alcoholic extracts and essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54(4): 1420-1426.
33 Aidi Wannes W, Mhamdi B, Marzouk B.Essential oil composition of twoMyrtus communis L. varieties grown in North Tunisia. Ital J Biochem. 2007; 56(2): 180-186.
34 Mulas M, Melis RAM.Essential oil composition of Myrtle (Myrtus communis) leaves. J Herbs Spices Med Plants. 2011; 17(1): 21-34.
35 Messaoud C, Zaouali Y, Salah AB, Khoudja M, Boussaid M.Myrtus communis in Tunisia: variability of the essential oil composition in natural populations. Flavour Fragr J. 2005; 20(6): 577-582.
36 Viuda-Martos M, Sendra E, Pérez-Alvarez JA, Fernández- López J, Amensour M, Abrini J.Identification of flavonoid content and chemical composition of the essential oils of Moroccan herbs: Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.), Rockrose(Cistus ladanifer L.) and Montpellier cistus 2011; 23(2): 1-9.
37 Şan B, Yildirim NA, Polat M, Yildirim F.Chemical compositions of myrtle(Myrtus communis L.) genotypes having bluish-black and yellowish-white fruits.Erwerbs- Obstb au. 2015; 57(4): 203-210.
38 Farahvash MJ, Sharif H, Kashanian M, Akbari H.Determine the effect of anti-hemorrhoid ointment to treat the symptoms of and compare them with the ointment. In: Hejazi H. Research and Development Center of Barij Report. Kashan: Barij Essence Pharmaceutical Company. 2001: 70-89.
39 Panahi Y, Mousavi-nayeeni SM, Sahebkar A, Fanaie SA, Rahimnia AR, Beiraghdar F.Myrtus communis essential oil for the treatment of hemorrhoids: a randomized doubleblind double-dummy parallel-group comparative study. Turkish J Pharm Sci. 2014; 11(1): 1-8.
40 Ebrahimi H. Therapeutic effects of MG topical lotion in patients in hospitals related to Islamic Azad University of Mashhad during the years 1381 to 1382. Khorasan Razavi: Islamic Azad University of Mashhad. 2003. Persian.
41 Hengge UR, Ruzicka T, Schwartz RA, Cork MJ.Adverse effects of topical glucocorticosteroids.J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006; 54(1): 1-15.
42 Schoepe S, Schäcke H, May E, Asadullah K.Glucocorticoid therapy-induced skin atrophy.Exp Dermatol. 2006; 15(6): 406-420.
43 Becker DE, Reed KL.Local anesthetics: review of pharmacological considerations.Anesth Prog. 2012; 59(2): 90-102.
44 Raffetto JD, Mannello F.Pathophysiology of chronic venous disease.Int Angiol. 2014; 33(3): 212-221.
45 Maxia A, Frau MA, Falconieri D, Karchuli MS, Kasture S.Essential oil ofMyrtus communis inhibits inflammation in rats by reducing serum IL-6 and TNF-α. Nat Prod Commun. 2011; 6(10): 1545-1548.
46 Nassar MI, Aboutabl el-SA, Ahmed RF, El-Khrisy ED, Ibrahim KM, Sleem AA. Secondary metabolites and bioactivities ofMyrtus communis. Pharmacog Res. 2010; 2(6): 325-329.
47 Qaraaty M, Kamali SH, Dabaghian FH, Zafarghandi N, Mokaberinejad R, Mobli M, Amin G, Naseri M, Kamalinejad M, Amin M, Ghaseminejad A, HosseiniKhabiri SJ, Talei D. Effect of myrtle fruit syrup on abnormal uterine bleeding: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.Daru. 2014; 2(22): 45.
48 Critchley HO, Maybin JA.Molecular and cellular causes of abnormal uterine bleeding of endometrial origin.Semin Reprod Med. 2011; 29(5): 400-409.
49 Santos FA, Silva RM, Campos AR, De Araujo RP, Lima Junior RC, Rao VS.1,8-Cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis.Food Chem Toxicol. 2004; 42(4): 579-584.
50 Duke JA.CRC handbook of medicinal spices. Washington DC: CRC Press. 2002: 221.
51 Gulec M, Ogur R, Gul H, Korkmaz A, Bakir B.Investigation of vasoactive ion content of herbs used in hemorrhoid treatment in Turkey.Pak J Pharm Sci. 2009; 22(2): 187-192.
52 Ostad SN.The effects of creating skin irritation and allergic reactions to the ointment containing essential oils. In: Hejazi H. Research and Development Center of Barij Report. Kashan: Medicinal Plant Research Center of Barij Essence Pharmaceutical Company. 2001: 64-69.
53 Ostad SN.Study of acute toxicity, chronic under hepatotoxicity of Myrtus communis essential oil in rat. In: Hejazi H. Research and Development Center of Barij Report. Kashan: Barij Essence Pharmaceutical Company. 2001: 2-13.
54 Uehleke H, Brinkschulte-Freitas M.Oral toxicity of an essential oil from myrtle and adaptive liver stimulation.Toxicology. 1979; 12(3): 335-342.
[1] Bruno José Martins Da Silva, Amanda Anastácia Pinto Hage, Edilene Oliveira Silva, Ana Paula Drummond Rodrigues. Medicinal plants from the Brazilian Amazonian region and their antileishmanial activity: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 211-222.
[2] Sahar Dehdari, Homa Hajimehdipoor, Somayeh Esmaeili, Rasool Choopani, Seyed Alireza Mortazavi. Traditional and modern aspects of hemorrhoid treatment in Iran: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(2): 90-98.
[3] Amir Rashidian​, Saeed Mehrzadi, Ali Reza Ghannadi, Parvin Mahzooni, Samira Sadr, Mohsen Minaiyan​. Protective effect of ginger volatile oil against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats: A light microscopic evaluation. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(2): 115-120.
[4] Bao Tan, Hai-lian Shi, Guang Ji, Lan Lu, Ai-li Cao, Song-shan Shi, Jian-qun Xie. Antiproliferative effects of essential oil of a compound Chinese herbal medicine Weiqi Decoction on AGS cells. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2011, 9(5): 558-564.
[5] De-chang Hu , Xiu-tian Guo, Yong-qing Cao. Segmenting jugged dissection and ligation combined with additional ligation in treating circular mixed hemorrhoids: a report of 63 cases. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2009, 7(12): 1181-1183.
[6] Xue-peng Sun, Nian-song Wang, Qin Xue, Feng Wang. Volatile oil of Magnolia biondii inhibits expressions of P-selectin protein in serum and renal tissue of rats with diabetic nephropathy. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(5): 524-529.
[7] Li-xin Xiao, Jin-gen Lu. Clinical observation of suspended ligation and Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy in surgical management of circumferential mixed hemorrhoids. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2007, 5(4): 460-462.
[8] Min Wu, Juan Liu, Xin Zhang. Preparation of nano-liposome enveloping Flos Magnoliae volatile oil. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2007, 5(3): 314-317.
[9] Yan Xiao, Pin-kang Wei, Jun Li, Jun Shi, Zhi-hong Yu, Hui-ming Lin. Effects of Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil on tumor growth and cell cycle of MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells orthotopically transplanted in nude mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2006, 4(4): 384-387.
[10] Xian-wu Pei​, Kun-zheng Wang​, Xiao-qian Dang​, Jin-hui Song​, Zhi-bin Shi​, Deng-feng Gao​. Arnebia root oil promotes wound healing and expression of basic fibroblast growth factor on the wound surface in rabbits. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2006, 4(1): 52-55.
Full text



[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Yi-ting He, Qing-lin Zha, Jian-ping Yu, Yong Tan, Cheng Lu, Ai-ping Lv. Principal factor analysis of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlations with efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 32-36
[3] Jun Cai, Hua Wang, Sheng Zhou, Bin Wu, Hua-rong Song, Zheng-rong Xuan. Effect of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 37-40
[4] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[5] SUN Ming-yu, ZUO Jian, DUAN Ji-feng, HAN Jun, FAN Shi-ming, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Li-fang, YAO Ming-hui. Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 51-59
[6] Min Cheng, Qiong Feng, Shu-wen Qian, Hui Gao, Cui-qing Zhu. Preliminary assay of p-amyloid binding elements in heart-beneficial recipe. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 68-72
[7] Hai-feng Wei, Bai-liu Ya, Ling Zhao, Cui-fei Ye, Li Zhang, Lin Li. Evaluation of tongue manifestation of blood stasis syndrome and its relationship with blood rheological disorder in a rat model of transient brain ischemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 73-76
[8] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 82
[9] Guo-hong Yuan, Xiao-jing Pang, He-chao Ma. Synergic effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in reducing toxicity of cytoxan in tumor-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 83-88
[10] Jin-zhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xin-qing Zhang, Qi Bi, Xin Ma, Zhi-liang Wang, Xiao-bin Li, Shu-li Shen, Lin Li, Zhen-yun Wu, Li-yan Fang, Xiao-dong Zhao, Ying-chun Miao, Peng-wen Wang, Ying Ren, Jun-xiang Yin, Yong-yan Wang, Beijing United Study Group on MCI of the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments. Guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 9-14