Arnica,Homeopathy,Bias,Statistics,Zene expression,Tamm-Horsfall protein,Cell line," /> Arnica,Homeopathy,Bias,Statistics,Zene expression,Tamm-Horsfall protein,Cell line,"/> Homeopathic potencies of <em>Arnica montana</em> L. change gene expression in a Tamm-Horsfall protein-1 cell line <em>in vitro</em> model: The role of ethanol as a possible confounder and statistical bias
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Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2017, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (4): 255-264.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60346-7

Special Issue: Natural Drug

• Commentary •     Next Articles

Homeopathic potencies of Arnica montana L. change gene expression in a Tamm-Horsfall protein-1 cell line in vitro model: The role of ethanol as a possible confounder and statistical bias

Salvatore Chirumboloa, Geir Bjørklundb   

  1. a Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy 
    b Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, 8610 Mo i Rana, Norway
  • Received:2017-01-10 Accepted:2017-04-06 Online:2017-07-15 Published:2017-07-15
  • Contact: Salvatore Chirumbolo, PhD; E-mail:

Marzotto et al. showed that homeopathic preparations of Arnica montana L. acted directly on gene expression of Tamm-Horsfall protein-1 (THP-1) monocyte/macrophage cell lines activated with phorbol12-myristate13-acetate and interleukin-4 (IL-4). A. montana homeopathic dilutions are used in complementary and alternative medicine to treat inflammation disorders and post-traumatic events as well as for wound repair. The French Pharmacopoeia of these remedies uses 0.3% ethanol in each centesimal dilution. In this paper, we discuss how ethanol-containing A. montana homeopathic centesimal dilutions can change gene expression in IL-4-treated monocyte/macrophage THP-1. We assessed the role of ethanol in the Arnica homeopathic dilutions containing this alcohol by investigating its action on gene expression of THP-1 cell. Evidence would strongly suggest that the presence of ethanol in these remedies might play a fundamental role in the dilutions ability to affect gene expression, particularly for doses from 5c to 15c. Where, rather than playing a major role in the mesoscopic structure of water, the ethanol might have a chemical-physical role in the induction of THP-1 gene expression, apoptosis, and deoxyribonucleic acid function. This evidence generates a debate about the suggestion that the use of a binary-mixed solvent in homeopathic chemistry, used by Hahnemann since 1810, may be fundamental to explain the activity of homeopathy on cell models.

Key words: Arnica, Homeopathy, Bias, Statistics, Zene expression, Tamm-Horsfall protein, Cell line

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