Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2012, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (6): 604-614.doi: 10.3736/jcim20120602

• Methodology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Methodological issues and suggestions for improvement in randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine for recurrent miscarriage

Hui Luo, Jian-ping Liu(), Qing Li   

  1. Center for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2012-01-02 Accepted:2012-02-28 Online:2012-06-20 Published:2018-06-15
  • Contact: Jian-ping Liu

Objective: Recurrent miscarriage is a common disease in clinical obstetrics and gynecology. There is no curative treatment for recurrent miscarriage in conventional medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in the treatment of recurrent miscarriage in China for thousands of years. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high quality evaluating the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) still lack. This study was conducted in order to identify methodological problems in published or unpublished RCTs of CHM in the treatment of recurrent miscarriage, and provide suggestions for TCM researchers to conduct high-quality clinical research.
Methods: Literature searching was conducted to collect published and unpublished RCTs from six electronic literature databases, including China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP Chinese Scientific Journals Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang Data, PubMed, and Cochrane Library, till December 15, 2011. The Cochrane Handbook, the CONSORT Statement and the CONSORT for TCM statement were used to assess the methodological quality in the designing and reporting of included trials.
Results: A total of 49 RCTs were included in this critical appraisal. Most of the trials were of high risk of bias with flawed study design and poor methodological quality. The main problems included: no report on random methods or sequence concealment; no calculation of sample size; no flow chart of enrollment and outcomes; no report on blinding methods; no or incomplete report on baseline data such as diagnosis criteria and causes of miscarriage recurrent, age, times of spontaneous abortion, TCM syndrome differentiation; complex CHM treatments and inappropriate control interventions; no report on follow-up and withdrawals; inappropriate outcome measurements such as middle-outcome or laboratory test results; no report on final outcome (live-birth rate).
Conclusion: There are many methodological problems in RCTs of CHM for recurrent miscarriage. It is suggested that four issues should be taken into consideration for TCM research: basic principles of clinical research are needed in design and reporting of RCTs; definite diagnosis criteria and baseline data should be reported in detail; appropriate treatment and control interventions should be selected according to the assumption and objective of research; final outcome (live-birth rate) should be reported in outcome evaluation.

Key words: abortion, habitual, drugs, Chinese herbal, randomized controlled trials, methodology

Figure 1

Flow chart of study selection CNKI: China National Knowledge Infrastructure; VIP: Chongqing VIP Chinese Scientific Journals Database; CBM: Chinese Biomedical Literature Database; RCT: randomized controlled trial."

[1] American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin. Management of recurrent pregnancy loss. Number 24, February 2001.(Replaces Technical Bulletin Number 212, September 1995). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Number 212, September 1995). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists[J]. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 2002,78(2):179-190
doi: 10.1016/S0020-7292(02)00197-2
[2] Zhang JP, Lin QD, Li DJ, Luo SP, Zhang QX, Feng SY, Liu YK . Diagnosis and treatment of recurrent miscarriage[J]. Xian Dai Fu Chan Ke Jin Zhan, 2006,15(7):481-492
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-7379.2006.07.001
张建平, 林其德, 李大金, 罗颂平, 张清学, 冯淑英, 刘玉昆 . 复发性流产的诊断与治疗[J]. 现代妇产科进展, 2006,15(7):481-492
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-7379.2006.07.001
[3] Rai R, Regan L . Recurrent miscarriage[J]. Lancet, 2006,368(9535):601-611
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69204-0
[4] Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The investigation and treatment of couples with recurrent first-trimester and second-trimester miscarriage.3rd ed. Green-top Guideline, No. 17, 2011.
[5] Higgins JPT, Green S\ , The Cochrane Collaboration.Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions . Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 2009.
[6] Moher D, Hopewell S, Schulz KF, Montori V, Gøtzsche PC, Devereaux PJ, Elbourne D, Egger M, Altman DG . CONSORT 2010 explanation and elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials[J]. BMJ, 2010,340:c869
doi: 10.1136/bmj.c869
[7] Wu TX, Li YP, Bian ZX, Li TQ, Li J, Dagenais S, Moher D , CONSORT for TCM Workshop.Consolidated standards for reporting trials of traditional Chinese medicine(CONSORT for TCM)[J]. Zhongguo Xun Zheng Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2007,7(8):601-605
吴泰相, 李幼平, 卞兆祥, 李廷谦, 李静 , Dagenais S, Moher D, 代表CONSORT for TCM工作组.中医药临床随机对照试验报告规范(征求意见稿)[J]. 中国循证医学杂志, 2007,7(8):601-605
[8] Qiu MY, Luo Q, He SQ . Clinical observation on Shenrong Baifeng pill in the treatment of pregnancy bleeding, fetal irritability and recurrent miscarriage[J]. Liaoning Zhong Yi Yao Da Xue Xue Bao, 2008,10(6):121-122
邱明英, 罗勤, 何素琼 . 参茸白凤丸治疗胎漏、胎动不安及滑胎疗效观察[J]. 辽宁中医药大学学报, 2008,10(6):121-122
[9] Chu JZ, Liu YZ, Lü LF, Liu YW, Bian WH, Qiu MY . Clinical study of Baotai formula for threatened abortion and habitual abortion[J]. Liaoning Zhong Yi Za Zhi, 2007,34(12):1747
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-1719.2007.12.046
楚健子, 刘玉芝, 吕连凤, 刘玉文, 边文会, 仇明云 . 保胎方治疗先兆流产及习惯性流产的临床研究[J]. 辽宁中医杂志, 2007,34(12):1747
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-1719.2007.12.046
[10] Wang JL, Zhong AM . Chinese integrative medicine in the treatment of 79 cases of threatened abortion or habitual abortion[J]. She Qu Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2007,5(24):64-65
王金兰, 仲爱梅 . 中西医结合治疗先兆流产及习惯性流产79例临床观察[J]. 社区医学杂志, 2007,5(24):64-65
[11] Chen YH . Clinical observation of the effect on “Jia jian shou tai pill” treating the threatened abortion or habitual abortion of “deficiency of spleen and kidney”. Guangzhou: Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine. 2005. Chinese with abstract in English.
doi: 10.7666/d.y737825
陈曰黄 . 加减寿胎丸治疗肾脾虚弱型先兆流产、习惯性流产的临床观察. 广州: 广州中医药大学. 2005.
doi: 10.7666/d.y737825
[12] Wu S . Clinical study on Chinese integrative medicine in the treatment of 76 cases of threatened abortion or habitual abortion[J]. Zhongguo She Qu Yi Shi Zong He Ban, 2005,7(12):69-70
吴舒 . 中西医结合治疗先兆流产及习惯性流产76例[J]. 中国社区医师(综合版), 2005,7(12):69-70
[13] Zhang XH, Fang RD . Clinical observation of Zishen Yutai pill for 43 cases of threatened abortion or habitual abortion[J]. Zhonghua Shi Yong Zhong Xi Yi Za Zhi, 2004,17(13):2062-2063
张晓华, 方如丹 . 滋肾育胎丸治疗先兆流产、习惯性流产43例临床观察[J]. 中华实用中西医杂志, 2004,17(13):2062-2063
[14] Tian YP, Li HW . A clinical observation on the treatment of threatened abortion and habitual abortion by integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in 110 cases[J]. Jinggangshan Yi Zhuan Xue Bao, 2001,8(6):1-2
田诒平, 李红卫 . 中西医结合治疗先兆流产及习惯性流产110例疗效观察[J]. 井冈山医专学报, 2001,8(6):1-2
[15] Zhao Y, Zhang YZ . Clinical observation on Zhuyun 3rd pill in treating pregnancy bleeding, fetal irritability and recurrent miscarriage of “deficiency of spleen and kidney”[J]. Xin Zhong Yi, 1999,31(12):20-21
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0256-7415.1999.12.009
赵颖, 张玉珍 . 助孕3号丸治疗脾肾虚证胎漏、胎动不安、滑胎疗效观察[J]. 新中医, 1999,31(12):20-21
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0256-7415.1999.12.009
[16] Wu C, Huang JH . Clinical study on Chinese integrative medicine in the treatment of 158 cases of threatened abortion or habitual abortion[J]. Xin Zhong Yi, 1999,31(12):29
吴淳, 黄锦汉 . 中西医结合治疗先兆流产及习惯性流产158例[J]. 新中医, 1999,31(12):29
[17] He WH . Clinical observation of Chinese integrative medicine in the treatment of habitual abortion[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Yi Yao Xian Dai Yuan Cheng Jiao Yu, 2011,9(6):55-56
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2779.2011.06.037
何文华 . 中西医结合治疗习惯性流产的临床观察[J]. 中国中医药现代远程教育, 2011,9(6):55-56
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2779.2011.06.037
[18] Li Q . Clinical observation of self-made formula in the treatment of 30 cases of habitual abortion[J]. Zhongguo She Qu Yi Shi Yi Xue Zhuan Ye, 2011,13(22):204
李琼 . 自拟方治疗习惯性流产30例临床观察[J]. 中国社区医师(医学专业), 2011,13(22):204
[19] He GY . Clinical observation on three therapies for women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion[J]. Zhejiang Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 2011,21(6):411-412
何桂英 . 三种方法治疗不明原因性复发性流产疗效观察[J]. 浙江中西医结合杂志, 2011,21(6):411-412
[20] Huang Y, Liang SD, Tang CL . Study on effect of Antai decoction combined with Western medicine in treating recurrent abortion[J]. Xian Dai Yi Yao Wei Sheng, 2010,26(2):172-173
黄越, 梁淑东, 唐翠兰 . 安胎汤联合西药治疗复发性流产效果观察[J]. 现代医药卫生, 2010,26(2):172-173
[21] Wu X, Zhou YY, Shen XJ, Feng GR . Low dose of aspirin combined with Gushen Jianpi therapy in the treatment of unexplained habitual abortion[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Yi Ji Chu Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2009,15(9):715
吴昕, 周艳艳, 申小静, 冯光荣 . 小剂量阿司匹林联合固肾健脾法治疗不明原因习惯性流产[J]. 中国中医基础医学杂志, 2009,15(9):715
[22] Zhao R, Ma BZ, Shi SM . Treating from heart in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion[J]. Zhong Yi Yao Xin Xi, 2009,26(6):87-88
赵锐, 马宝璋, 时思毛 . 从心论治原因不明的复发性流产[J]. 中医药信息, 2009,26(6):87-88
[23] Ye LQ . Clinical study of Bushen Huoxue therapy plus aspirin for recurrent spontaneous abortion with positive anticardiolipin[J]. Jiangxi Zhong Yi Yao, 2008,39(10):63-64
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0411-9584.2008.10.041
叶利群 . 补肾活血法合阿斯匹林治疗ACA阳性复发性流产45例[J]. 江西中医药, 2008,39(10):63-64
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0411-9584.2008.10.041
[24] Cai XQ, Cheng HJ . Chinese integrative medicine in the treatment of 25 cases of recurrent spontaneous abortion[J]. Zhejiang Zhong Yi Za Zhi, 2008,43(9):524
蔡夏琴, 程慧洁 . 中西医结合治疗复发性流产25例临床观察[J]. 浙江中医杂志, 2008,43(9):524
[25] Xie YH, Hu HJ . Clinical observation on Chinese integrative medicine in the treatment of 69 cases of recurrent spontaneous abortion before and after pregnancy[J]. Zhejiang Zhong Yi Za Zhi, 2008,43(8):457
谢一红, 胡慧娟 . 中西医结合孕前孕后并治复发性流产69例临床观察[J]. 浙江中医杂志, 2008,43(8):457
[26] Tian DZ, Liao HF, Huang H, Dan Y, Gao BL . The study on treatment for occult hyperprolactinemia with early recurrent abortion by traditional Chinese herbal medicine[J]. Zhonghua Quan Ke Yi Shi Za Zhi, 2006,5(5):287-290
田冬珍, 疗鸿飞, 黄卉, 但阳, 高碧兰 . 中药治疗隐匿型高催乳素血症伴早期复发性流产的临床研究[J]. 中华全科医师杂志, 2006,5(5):287-290
[27] Liu HL, Li ZR, Lü HX, Yang HY . Comparison of Chinese herbal medicine and active-immunization therapy on immunity cell function in women with habitual abortion[M]. Ningbo: Proceedings of Chinese Medical Association 5th Academic Conference on Perinatal Medicine, 2005: 87-91
刘海莉, 李昭荣, 吕海侠, 杨会云 . 中药与主动免疫治疗习惯性流产的细胞免疫功能变化比较[M]. 宁波: 中华医学会第五次全国围产医学学术会议论文汇编, 2005: 87-91
[28] Zou XD, Li NM, Yan LY . Clinical observation of Chinese integrative medicine for women with habitual abortion[J]. Zhongguo Fu You Bao Jian, 2005,20(9):1128
邹学冬, 李乃美, 燕凌云 . 中西药结合治疗习惯性流产疗效观察[J]. 中国妇幼保健, 2005,20(9):1128
[29] Zhu HP . Clinical observation on Yangxue Bushen Gutai decoction in 88 cases of habitual abortion[J]. Shi Yong Zhong Yi Yao Za Zhi, 2005,21(10):593
朱慧萍 . 养血补肾固胎汤治疗习惯性流产88例观察[J]. 实用中医药杂志, 2005,21(10):593
[30] Feng H . Clinical study of comprehensive treatment for 105 cases of habitual abortion[J]. Henan Zhong Yi, 2005,25(11):49
冯华 . 综合治疗习惯性流产105例[J]. 河南中医, 2005,25(11):49
[31] Pan CP . Clinical study on Chinese integrative medicine in the treatment of 45 cases of habitual abortion[J]. Guangxi Zhong Yi Yao, 2003,26(2):20-21
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-0719.2003.02.010
潘彩萍 . 中西医结合治疗习惯性流产45例[J]. 广西中医药, 2003,26(2):20-21
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-0719.2003.02.010
[32] Yan KB . Clinical study of self-made decoction and powder for 82 cases of recurrent miscarriage before pregnancy[J]. Hebei Zhong Yi Yao Xue Bao, 2003,18(2):10-11
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-5615.2003.02.005
严可斌 . 自拟中药汤剂合粉剂孕前治疗滑胎病82例临床研究[J]. 河北中医药学报, 2003,18(2):10-11
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-5615.2003.02.005
[33] Li WH . Clinical observation on Chinese integrative medicine in recurrent miscarriage patients with positive anticardiolipin[J]. Guangxi Zhong Yi Yao, 2003,26(3):23-24
李卫红 . 中西医结合治疗抗心磷脂抗体所致反复自然流产临床观察[J]. 广西中医药, 2003,26(3):23-24
[34] Shu J, Miao P, Wang RK . Clinical observation on effect of Chinese herbal medicine plus human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone in treating anticardiolipin antibody-positive early recurrent spontaneous abortion[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 2002,22(6):414-416
doi: 10.7661/CJIM.2002.6.414
舒静, 缪频, 王若楷 . 中西医结合治疗抗心磷脂抗体阳性反复早期自然流产临床观察[J]. 中国中西医结合杂志, 2002,22(6):414-416
doi: 10.7661/CJIM.2002.6.414
[35] Li P . Clinical observation on Chinese integrative medicine in the treatment of 60 cases of habitual abortion[J]. Hunan Zhong Yi Za Zhi, 2000,16(1):20-21
李平 . 中西医结合治疗习惯性流产60例临床观察[J]. 湖南中医杂志, 2000,16(1):20-21
[36] Li XY, Liu ST, Lü HD, Qu QX, Liu SY, Bai SZ, Li H, Tang NF . Clinical observation on effect of self-made Chinese herbal decoction Ⅰ in treating habitual abortion caused by cytomegalovirus[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 1998,18(3):180
李秀英, 刘善庭, 吕厚东, 瞿清秀, 刘淑英, 白淑贞, 李华, 唐乃富 . 中药Ⅰ号汤治疗巨细胞病毒引起的习惯性流产临床观察[J]. 中国中西医结合杂志, 1998,18(3):180
[37] Feng CF, Zhang H, Wang W . Clinical observation on effect of Youshengling pills in treating habitual abortion[J]. Shanxi Yi Yao Za Zhi, 1998,27(6):536
冯彩凤, 张惠, 王玮 . 优生灵治疗习惯性流产疗效观察[J]. 山西医药杂志, 1998,27(6):536
[38] Wang YH, Zheng HA, Sun LH . Clinical study of Baotai formula in treatment of 38 cases of habitual abortion[J]. Zhongguo Min Jian Liao Fa, 1997,(3):39
王玉环, 郑洪爱, 孙莲花 . 保胎成方治疗习惯性流产38例[J]. 中国民间疗法, 1997,(3):39
[39] Li XH, Gao YF . Clinical study on Chinese integrative medicine in the treatment of 48 cases of habitual abortion[J]. Liaoning Zhong Yi Za Zhi, 1995,22(8):367
李新华, 高云风 . 中西医结合治疗习惯性流产48例[J]. 辽宁中医杂志, 1995,22(8):367
[40] Zhang B . Clinical observation on Chinese integrative medicine in treatment of 31 cases of habitual abortion in a primary hospital[J]. Zhongguo Yi Yao Zhi Nan, 2011,9(8):298
张波 . 基层医院中西医结合治疗习惯性流产31例临床观察[J]. 中国医药指南, 2011,9(8):298
[41] Zhou XW, Li WL, Wang D, Wan CY, Wang JF, Wu HY . Bushen Antai granules combined with immunotherapy in treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion: A report of 40 cases[J]. Anhui Zhong Yi Xue Yuan Xue Bao, 2011,30(1):27-29
周先韦, 李伟莉, 汪丹, 万春艳, 王金芳, 吴海燕 . 补肾安胎冲剂联合免疫疗法治疗反复自然流产40例[J]. 安徽中医学院学报, 2011,30(1):27-29
[42] Tian C, Li J, Chang XL . Clinical study on Antai Zhongzi pills for unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion[J]. Xin Zhong Yi, 2011,43(1):53-55
田葱, 李娟, 常兴隆 . 安胎种子丸治疗不明原因复发性流产临床研究[J]. 新中医, 2011,43(1):53-55
[43] Fan LL . The clinical observation of added Shoutai pill on treating habitual abortion[J]. Zhong Yi Xue Bao, 2010,25(3):535-536
范丽丽 . 寿胎丸加味治疗习惯性流产临床观察[J]. 中医学报, 2010,25(3):535-536
[44] Cheng JL, Ma SH . Clinical study of Bushen Jianpi Huoxue Jiedu therapy in treating 53 cases of autoimmune recurrent spontaneous abortion[J]. Hebei Zhong Yi Yao Xue Bao, 2010,25(3):15-17
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-5615.2010.03.008
程聚玲, 马淑红 . 补肾健脾活血解毒法治疗免疫性习惯性流产53例临床研究[J]. 河北中医药学报, 2010,25(3):15-17
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-5615.2010.03.008
[45] Yang S, Zheng Y, Ma CB . Clinical study of Chinese integrative medicine in the treatment of 35 cases of habitual abortion with deficiency of spleen and kidney[J]. Fujian Zhong Yi Xue Yuan Xue Bao, 2010,20(2):48-49
杨声, 郑艳, 马常宝 . 中西医结合治疗脾肾两虚型滑胎35例[J]. 福建中医学院学报, 2010,20(2):48-49
[46] Guo Z . Comparison of Gutaijian and Bushen Guchong decoction’s effects on estrogen levels of women with habitual abortion[J]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Fang Ji Xue Za Zhi, 2010,16(6):293
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1005-9903.2010.06.093
郭珍 . 固胎煎和补肾固冲汤调理习惯性流产患者雌激素水平比较[J]. 中国实验方剂学杂志, 2010,16(6):293
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1005-9903.2010.06.093
[47] Wang GX, Wei WZ, Huang BK . Effect of imiquimod OH Th1/Th2 cytokines to be treated by integrative Chinese and Western medicine with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion(URSA)[J]. Zhonghua Zhong Yi Yao Xue Kan, 2010,28(8):1701-1702
王革新, 魏伟周, 黄丙坤 . 中西医结合治疗原因不明复发性流产患者Th1/Th2细胞因子水平的影响[J]. 中华中医药学刊, 2010,28(8):1701-1702
[48] Shen WJ . Clinical and experimental study on treatment of autoimmune abortion with Neizhang Pill. Harbin: Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine. 2009. Chinese with abstract in English.
沈文娟 . 内障丸治疗免疫性习惯性流产的临床及实验研究. 哈尔滨: 黑龙江中医药大学. 2009.
[49] Hou X, Ye Q . Clinical study of Shoutai Ertian decoction plus Western medicine in the treatment of recurrent miscarriage with deficiency of spleen and kidney[J].Shaanxi Zhong Yi Xue Yuan Xue Bao, 2009, 32(1): 31,34
侯晓, 叶青 .寿胎二天汤配合西药治疗脾肾两虚型滑胎30例[J].陕西中医学院学报, 2009, 32(1): 31, 34
[50] Wang JX, Qiu TT . Clinical study on Bushen Yiqi Zhuzhuo therapy in habitual abortion caused by ABO hemolysis[J]. Hubei Zhong Yi Za Zhi, 2009,31(6):17-19
王建新, 邱婷婷 . 补肾益气逐浊法治疗ABO溶血致习惯性流产的临床研究[J]. 湖北中医杂志, 2009,31(6):17-19
[51] Luo DF, Wang JP, Wu SK . The clinical research of Huoxuezishen method on recurrent abortion by pre-thrombosis state[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Yi Ji Zheng, 2009,18(9):1426-1428
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-745X.2009.09.023
罗丹峰, 汪锦飘, 吴少焜 . 活血滋肾法治疗血栓前状态所致复发性流产临床研究[J]. 中国中医急症, 2009,18(9):1426-1428
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-745X.2009.09.023
[52] Li YH . Clinical observation on Chinese integrative medicine in treatment of 120 cases of habitual abortion[J]. Guo Ji Yi Yao Wei Sheng Dao Bao, 2009,15(3):69-70
doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-1245.2009.03.029
李玉环 . 中西医结合治疗习惯性流产120例的临床观察[J]. 国际医药卫生导报, 2009,15(3):69-70
doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-1245.2009.03.029
[53] Chen YZ, Peng JM, Wang SZ, Zhao H, Zhao HY . Clinical study of Guben Antai decoction for 100 cases of habitual abortion[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Yi Yao Ke Ji, 2008,15(3):226-227
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1005-7072.2008.03.037
陈永哲, 彭继美, 王淑珍, 赵辉, 赵洪亚 . 固本安胎液治疗习惯性流产100例[J]. 中国中医药科技, 2008,15(3):226-227
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1005-7072.2008.03.037
[54] Tang YP . Effect of Yikang’antai decoction on serum antibody and T cell subgroups in patients with immuno-recurrent abortion[J]. Tianjin Zhong Yi Yao, 2008,25(4):283-285
汤月萍 . 抑抗安胎饮对免疫复发性流产患者血清抗体及T淋巴细胞亚群的影响[J]. 天津中医药, 2008,25(4):283-285
[55] Liu YJ . Clinical study on Bushen Huoxue decoction in treatment of 50 cases of recurrent spontaneous abortion[J]. Shaanxi Zhong Yi, 2008,29(3):279-280
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-7369.2008.03.018
刘银姣 . 补肾活血汤治疗复发性流产50例[J]. 陕西中医, 2008,29(3):279-280
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-7369.2008.03.018
[56] Yuan SX . Clinical study of Bushen Huoxue treatment of anticardiolipin antibodies masculine to the recurrent spontaneous abortion. Zhengzhou: Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2008. Chinese with abstract in English.
doi: 10.7666/d.y1320718
袁社霞 . 补肾活血法治疗抗心磷脂抗体阳性致反复流产的临床研究. 郑州: 河南中医学院. 2008.
doi: 10.7666/d.y1320718
[57] Liu YJ . Shoutaiwan plus Xiangdanzhen prevention of recurrent spontaneous abortion: a clinical observation. Zhengzhou: Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2008. Chinese with abstract in English.
doi: 10.7666/d.y1320721
刘银姣 . 寿胎丸加香丹针防治复发性自然流产的临床观察. 郑州: 河南中医学院. 2008.
doi: 10.7666/d.y1320721
[58] Wu XY . The clinical study on curative effects of splenorenal deficiency early recurrent spontaneous abortion by “Baotaiyin”. Fuzhou: Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2008. Chinese with abstract in English.
吴小云 . 保胎饮治疗肾脾两虚型早期复发性自然流产的临床研究. 福州: 福建中医学院. 2008.
[59] Xu R . Clinical study of Gushen Antai decoction in treatment of 86 cases of habitual abortion[J]. Zhong Yi Yao Lin Chuang Za Zhi, 2007,19(5):466-467
徐嵘 . 固肾安胎汤治疗习惯性流产86例[J]. 中医药临床杂志, 2007,19(5):466-467
[60] Hu XH, Li YQ, Song XJ, Sun H . Influence of Bushen Jianpi therapy on cellular immunological factors in 60 cases of habitual abortion patients[J]. Zhong Yi Yan Jiu, 2007,20(12):20-22
胡晓华, 李艳青, 宋晓杰, 孙红 . 补肾健脾法对60例习惯性流产患者细胞免疫因子的影响[J]. 中医研究, 2007,20(12):20-22
[61] Dong F. Bushen Yikang treating autoimmune recurrent spontaneous abortions clinical research. Xianyang: Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine. 2007. Chinese with abstract in English.
doi: 10.7666/d.y1087529
董芳 . 补肾抑抗汤治疗免疫性反复自然流产的临床研究. 咸阳: 陕西中医学院. 2007.
doi: 10.7666/d.y1087529
[62] Cui YF. Clinical research on the effect of Bushen Gutai decoction treating the recurrent spontaneous abortion. Jinan: Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2004. Chinese with abstract in English.
崔轶凡 . 补肾固胎汤治疗脾肾两虚型滑胎的临床观察. 济南: 山东中医药大学. 2004.
[63] Ban YH . Clinical research on internal secretion and immunity regulation of habitual abortion in gestational prophase with Kangyun Antai Yin. Harbin: Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine. 2003. Chinese with abstract in English.
班艳红 . 抗殒安胎饮对孕早期习惯性流产内分泌及免疫调节的临床研究. 哈尔滨: 黑龙江中医药大学. 2003.
[64] Zhao K . Clinical observation of Kunbao Heji in treatment of 58 cases of habitual abortion[J]. Shi Yong Zhong Yi Yao Za Zhi, 2001,17(11):5
赵凯 . 坤宝合剂治疗习惯性流产58例观察[J]. 实用中医药杂志, 2001,17(11):5
[65] Yang XS, Yang CX, Wang QM . Clincal and experimental study on threatened abortion and habitual abortion with Yunkang oral liquor[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Yi Yao Ke Ji, 1998,5(5):277-280
杨晓生, 杨承祥, 王钦茂 . 孕康口服液治疗先兆流产、习惯性流产的临床与实验研究[J]. 中国中医药科技, 1998,5(5):277-280
[66] Reinisch JM, Sanders SA, Mortensen EL, Rubin DB . In utero exposure to phenobarbital and intelligence deficits in adult men[J]. JAMA, 1995,274(19):1518-1525
doi: 10.1001/jama.1995.03530190032031
[67] State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Criteria of diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of diseases and syndromes in traditional Chinese medicine[M]. Nanjing: Nanjing University Press, 1994: 67-68
国家中医药管理局. 中医病证诊断疗效标准[M]. 南京: 南京大学出版社, 1994: 67-68
[1] Shu-yi Chen, Qun-wei Chen, Liu-mei Shou, Hong Pan, Shan-ming Ruan, Zhe-hao Liang, Qi-jin Shu. Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis successfully treated with Chinese herbal medicine Pi-Yan-Ning: A case report. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(6): 555-560.
[2] Xin Yin, Shu-bin Cai, Lan-ting Tao, Lu-ming Chen, Zhong-de Zhang, Su-hong Xiao, Arthur Yin Fan, Xu Zou. Recovery of a patient with severe COVID-19 by acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine adjuvant to standard care. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(5): 460-466.
[3] Meng-zhu Zhao, Chen Zhao, Shuang-shuang Tu, Xu-xu Wei, Hong-cai Shang. Evaluating the methodology of studies conducted during the global COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(4): 317-326.
[4] Qing-lan Wang, Yan-yan Tao, Hong-dong Xie, Cheng-hai Liu, Ping Liu. Fuzheng Huayu recipe, a traditional Chinese compound herbal medicine, attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis via targeting the miR-21/PTEN/AKT axis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(6): 505-513.
[5] Ming-sheng Lyu, De-ying Li, Shao-zhong Zhou, Cheng-jun Ban, Jun Yan. Adult-onset Still's disease successfully treated with Chinese herbal medicine: A case report with 15-month follow-up. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(6): 530-534.
[6] Arthur Yin Fan, Sherman Gu, Sarah Faggert Alemi, Research Group for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine. Chinese herbal medicine for COVID-19: Current evidence with systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(5): 385-394.
[7] Bin Lan, Jin-wen Ge, Shao-wu Cheng, Xi-long Zheng, Jun Liao, Chao He, Zheng-qing Rao, Guo-zuo Wang. Extract of Naotaifang, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, protects neuron ferroptosis induced by acute cerebral ischemia in rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(4): 344-350.
[8] Deng-hai Zhang, Kun-lun Wu, Xue Zhang, Sheng-qiong Deng, Bin Peng. In silico screening of Chinese herbal medicines with the potential to directly inhibit 2019 novel coronavirus. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 152-158.
[9] Carola Analía Torres, Cristina Marisel Pérez Zamora, María Beatriz Nuñez, Ana María Gonzalez. In vitro antioxidant, antilipoxygenase and antimicrobial activities of extracts from seven climbing plants belonging to the Bignoniaceae. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 255-262.
[10] Fabiana de Almeida Andrade, Caio Fabio Schlechta Portella. Research methods in complementary and alternative medicine: An integrative review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(1): 6-13.
[11] Shui-jie Shen, Yong-hong Zhang, Xiao-xia Gu, Shui-ju Jiang, Ling-jun Xu. Yangfei Kongliu Formula, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, combined with cisplatin, inhibits growth of lung cancer cells through transforming growth factor-β1 signaling pathway. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(3): 242-251.
[12] Liliana Zazueta-Beltrán, Lorena Medina-Aymerich, Nadia Estela Díaz-Triste, Aracely Evangelina Chávez-Piña, Gilberto Castañeda-Hernández, Leticia Cruz-Antonio. Evidence against the participation of a pharmacokinetic interaction in the protective effect of single-dose curcumin against gastrointestinal damage induced by indomethacin in rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(2): 151-157.
[13] Tom Fleischer, Tung-Ti Chang, Hung-Rong Yen. Post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with hematologic disorders: Chinese herbal medicine for an unmet need. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(5): 322-335.
[14] Maria T.Chao, AlexandraChang, SanjayReddy, James D.Harrison, JosephAcquah, MiriaToveg, TrilceSantana, Frederick M.Hecht. Adjunctive acupuncture for pain and symptom management in the inpatient setting: Protocol for a pilot hybrid effectiveness-implementation study. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(3): 228-238.
[15] JiaXia, Li-qunHe, XiaoSu. Interventional mechanisms of herbs or herbal extracts on renal interstitial fibrosis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(3): 165-173.
Full text



[1] Jin-rong Fu. Establishment of multivariate diagnosis and treatment system of modern gynecology of traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 22-24
[2] Hao Li, Ming-jiang Yao, Wen-ming Zhao, Jie Guan, Lin-lin Cai, Ling Cui. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of Huannao Yicong capsule in senile patients with mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 25-31
[3] Zhi-chun Jin. Problems in establishing clinical guideline for integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 5-8
[4] SUN Ming-yu, ZUO Jian, DUAN Ji-feng, HAN Jun, FAN Shi-ming, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Li-fang, YAO Ming-hui. Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 51-59
[5] Min Cheng, Qiong Feng, Shu-wen Qian, Hui Gao, Cui-qing Zhu. Preliminary assay of p-amyloid binding elements in heart-beneficial recipe. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 68-72
[6] Ning-qun Wang, Liang-duo Jiang, Zong-xing Li. Research progress in asthma-related quality of life. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 93-97
[7] Jing-yuan Mao, Chang-xiao Liu, Heng-he Wang, Guang-li Wei , Zhen-peng Zhang, Jie Xing, Wang Xian liang , Ying-fei Bi . Effects of Shenmai Injection on serum concentration and pharmacokinetics of digoxin in dogs with heart failure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1070-1074
[8] Zhi-mei Wang, Bin Zhang. A study on translation of ellipses in Huangdi Neijing from perspective of hermeneutic theory. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1097-1100
[9] Gui Yu, Jie Wang. Thinking on building the network cardiovasology of Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1206-1210
[10] Pedro Saganha João, Doenitz Christoph, Greten Tobias, Efferth Thomas, J. Greten Henry. Qigong therapy for physiotherapists suffering from burnout: a preliminary study. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1233-1239