Metabolic syndrome also can be named insulin resistance syndrome. The main clinical manifestations include metabolic disorders of glucose and lipid and some diseases caused by the metabolic disorder, such as impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, obesity, hyperlipemia, fatty liver, hypertension, coronary heart disease, microalbuminuria, etc. According to the theory of zang-fu organs (viscera) in traditional Chinese medicine, these diseases all result from the deficiency of spleen-qi. They are characterized by deficiency in the Ben (root) and excess in the Biao (branch). The Ben (root) is the failure of the spleen in transportation, and the Biao (branch) is stagnation of qi, blood, phlegm, fire, dampness and food. In the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, it is advocated that the intervention of medicine should be used as early as possible, so as to slow down the occurrence and development of insulin resistance, and that emphasis should be transferred from decreasing blood glucose alone to comprehensive prevention of risk factors, especially to the prevention of cardiovascular events. The effect of traditional Chinese herbs is not as good as the western drugs in decreasing the blood pressure and glucose. However, the traditional Chinese herbs have distinctive superiority in ameliorating the insulin resistance, protecting the injury of vascular endothelial cells, regulating the metabolism of lipid, inhibiting the hypercoagulability, and treating the inflammation. Moreover, they are relatively safe. Therefore, the integration of the traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine is worth further research.