Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2009, Vol. 7 ›› Issue (7): 657-660.doi: 10.3736/jcim20090710

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Estrogen-like effects of saikosaponin-d in mice

Yong Lia,Peng Wanga,Jian-lin Renb, Dong-ying Yuanc,Shou-yi Yinc   

  1. a Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200071, China
    b Department of Medical Information, Shanghai Medical Information Center, Shanghai 200031, China
    c Department of Basic Theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Basic Medical Sciences,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China
  • Received:2009-03-24 Accepted:2009-05-14 Online:2009-07-20 Published:2009-07-15
  • Contact: Yong Li E-mail:liyong8855@gmail.com

Objective

To investigate whether saikosaponin-d (SSd) had estrogen-like effects in mice.

Methods

Forty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into sham-operated group, untreated group, estradiol (E2) group, low-dose SSd (5 mg/kg) group and high-dose SSd (50 mg/kg) group, with 8 mice in each group. Except the sham-operated group, bilateral ovariectomy was performed in the mice under anesthesia with 1.25% pentobarbital (40 mg/kg). Ten days after the operation, the mice were administered with corresponding medicine by intraperitoneal injection once each day. Two weeks later, the rates of epithelial cornified cells of vagina in the mice were examined, and the body weights, uterus weights and adrenal weights were also measured. Twelve hours after the final administration, serum estradiol levels were tested by radioimmunoassay.
Results

The rates of epithelial cornified cells of vagina in mice in the high-dose SSd group and the low-dose SSd group were higher than that in the untreated group (P<0.05), but were lower than that in the E2 group (P<0.05). Serum E2 levels of mice in the SSd groups were higher than that in the untreated group (P<0.05), but the serum E2 level of the low-dose SSd group was lower than that in the E2 group (P<0.05). Uterus and adrenal indexes of mice in the SSd groups were higher than that in the untreated group (P<0.05), however, they were lower than that in the E2 group (P<0.05). The body weights of the mice in the high-dose SSd group and the E2 group were lower than that in the untreated group (P<0.05).
Conclusion

SSd has weak estrogen-like effects in mice and may be a potential phytoestrogen.

Key words: Saikosaponin-d, Phytoestrogen, Estrogen, Mice

Figure 1

Vaginal smear of mice in untreated group (Light microscopy, ×100) A: The fifth day after bilateral ovariectomy (epithelial cornified cells of vagina); B: The tenth day after bilateral ovariectomy."

Table 1

Rates of epithelial cornified cells of vagina and serum E2 levels in mice in five groups ($\bar{x}$±s)"

Group n Rate of epithelial
cornified cells (%)
Serum E2 (ng/L)
Sham-operated 8 75.1±10.2 33.77±5.89
Untreated 8 15.3±3.2* 18.97±3.80*
E2 8 64.1±12.7* 32.30±5.65
SSd (50 mg/kg) 8 31.8±11.4* 30.38±4.24
SSd (5 mg/kg) 8 18.8±5.1* 27.11±4.85△▲

Table 2

Uterus and adrenal indexes of mice in five groups ($\bar{x}$±s, mg/g)"

Group n Uterus index Adrenal index
Sham-operated 8 2.51±0.15 0.163±0.011
Untreated 8 1.16±0.14* 0.107±0.013*
E2 8 2.26±0.15* 0.176±0.017*
SSd (50 mg/kg) 8 1.96±0.13*△▲ 0.133±0.012*△▲
SSd (5 mg/kg) 8 1.71±0.13*△▲ 0.112±0.016*△▲

Table 3

Weight growth of mice in five groups ($\bar{x}$±s, g)"

Group n Increased body weight
1st week 2nd week
Sham-operated 8 3.21±0.73 2.16±0.73
Untreated 8 4.07±0.70 2.47±0.85
E2 8 3.51±1.32 1.07±0.82*
SSd (50 mg/kg) 8 2.81±1.02 2.77±1.01
SSd (5 mg/kg) 8 3.88±1.04 2.13±0.89

Table 4

Body weights of mice in five groups before and after treatment ($\bar{x}$±s, g)"

Group n Body weight
Before treatment After treatment Difference
Sham-operated 8 16.08±0.70 21.45±1.21 5.37±1.27
Untreated 8 16.06±0.80 22.60±0.72 6.54±0.78
E2 8 16.13±0.55 20.71±1.04 4.58±1.22
SSd (50 mg/kg) 8 15.97±0.76 21.55±1.01 5.58±1.03
SSd (5 mg/kg) 8 16.10±0.70 22.11±1.42 6.01±0.75
[1] Zhu S, Shimokawa S, Shoyama Y, Tanaka H . A novel analytical ELISA-based methodology for pharmacologically active saikosaponins[J]. Fitoterapia, 2006,77(2):100-108
doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2005.11.005 pmid: 16376495
[2] Morinaga O, Zhu S, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y . Visual detection of saikosaponins by on-membrane immunoassay and estimation of traditional Chinese medicines containing Bupleuri radix[J]. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2006,346(3):687-692
doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.05.129
[3] Miao MS. Experimental animal and animal experimental technique[M]. Beijing: Chinese Press of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1997: 165-166
苗明三 . 实验动物和动物实验技术[M]. 北京: 中国中医药出版社, 1997: 165-166
[4] Xu YX, Shi HB . Effects of Fule granule on ovariectomized rats with yin deficiency and internal heat syndrome[J]. Zhong Cao Yao, 2004,35(10):1161-1163
doi: 10.7501/j.issn.0253-2670.2004.10.2004010556
徐亚香, 师海波 . 妇乐颗粒对去卵巢拟阴虚内热大鼠的影响[J]. 中草药, 2004,35(10):1161-1163
doi: 10.7501/j.issn.0253-2670.2004.10.2004010556
[5] Filippatos TD, Liberopoulos EN, Pavlidis N, Elisaf MS, Mikhailidis DP . Effects of hormonal treatment on lipids in patients with cancer[J]. Cancer Treat Rev, 2009,35(2):175-184
doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2008.09.007 pmid: 19013720
[6] Zhang XX, Liu S, Xue XH . Progress in research on Chinese herbs with estrogen-like effects[J]. J Chin Integr Med, 2005,3(2):149-153
doi: 10.3736/jcim20050219
张晓晓, 刘胜, 薛晓红 . 具有雌激素类似作用的中药研究进展[J]. 中西医结合学报, 2005,3(2):149-153
doi: 10.3736/jcim20050219
[7] Shi SF, Yu CQ . Progress in research on phytoestrogens and their effect targets[J]. J Chin Integr Med, 2005,3(5):408-410
石书芳, 俞超芹 . 植物雌激素及其作用靶点的研究进展[J]. 中西医结合学报, 2005,3(5):408-410
[8] Yang M, Ji H, Dai SJ, Fu FH . Effects of sarsasapogenin on endocrine and anti-oxidation function in ovariectomized rats[J]. Zhong Cao Yao, 2007,38(2):245-247
杨茗, 季晖, 戴胜军, 傅风华 . 菝葜皂苷元对去卵巢大鼠内分泌及抗氧化功能的影响[J]. 中草药, 2007,38(2):245-247
[9] Wu ZX, Wang XH, Liu H, Deng HZ . Effects of the mixture of Rhizoma Curcumae and Oviducts Ranae on estrogen and its receptor expressions in ovariectomized rats[J]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 2008,28(5):746-749
吴朝霞, 王晓华, 刘桦, 邓虹珠 . 莪术、哈蟆油对去势后大鼠雌激素水平及受体表达的影响[J]. 南方医科大学学报, 2008,28(5):746-749
[10] Dobashi I, Tozawa F, Horiba N, Sakai Y, Sakai K, Suda T . Central administration of saikosaponin-d increases corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA levels in the rat hypothalamus[J]. Neurosci Lett, 1995,197(3):235-238
doi: 10.1016/0304-3940(95)11933-N
[1] Yi Ran Hu, San Li Xing, Chuan Chen, Ding Zhu Shen, Jiu Lin Chen. Tiaoxin Recipe, a Chinese herbal formula, inhibits microRNA-34a expression in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 404-409.
[2] Bhesh Raj Sharma, Dong Wook Kim, Dong Young Rhyu. Korean Chungtaejeon tea extract attenuates weight gain in C57BL/6J-Lep ob/ob mice and regulates adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(1): 56-63.
[3] Shi-li Jiang, Xu-dong Hu, Ping Liu. Immunomodulation and liver protection of Yinchenhao decoction against concanavalin A-induced chronic liver injury in mice. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(4): 262-268.
[4] Elizabeth Abidemi Balogun, Sylvia Orume Malomo, Joseph Oluwatope Adebayo, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Ayodele Olufemi Soladoye, Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Stephen Olubunmi Oguntoye, Abiola Samuel Babatunde, Oluwole Busayo Akinola . In vivo antimalarial activity and toxicological effects of methanolic extract of Cocos nucifera (Dwarf red variety) husk fibre. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(6): 504-511.
[5] Md. Asadujjaman, Ahmed Ullah Mishuk, Md. Aslam Hossain, Utpal Kumar Karmakar. Medicinal potential of Passiflora foetida L. plant extracts: Biological and pharmacological activities. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(2): 121-126.
[6] Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Esmail Abbasi, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Mehdi Sheikhi, Mina Lotfizadeh, Parisa Bazahang. Effects of rutin on oxidative stress in mice with kainic acid-induced seizure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(5): 337-342.
[7] Md. Khirul Islam, Imran Mahmud, Sanjib Saha, Asit Baron Sarker, Himangsu Mondal, A.S.M. Monjur-Al-Hossain, Md. Anisuzzman. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Alocasia indica Schott tuber. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(5): 343-351.
[8] Sanjib Saha, Faroque Hossain, Md. Anisuzzman, Md. Khirul Islam. Pharmacological evaluation of Musa seminifera Lour. Fruit. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(4): 253-261.
[9] Sunil A. Nirmal, Jayashri M. Ingale, Shashikant R. Pattan, Sanjay B. Bhawar. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(3): 206-212.
[10] Lin Wang, Guan-liang Wang, Jia-han Liu, Di Li, De-zeng Zhu, Liang-neng Wu . Effects of ursolic acid in ameliorating insulin resistance in liver of KKAy mice via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(7): 793-799.
[11] Yi-tao Zhao , Xin-guang Zhang , Li Bai , Li-qing Li , Jian-er Yu . Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Pingchuan Formula on airway inflammation, interferon-γ and interleukin-4 in mice with asthma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(7): 807-813.
[12] Mei-jiao Mao, Jun-ping Hu, Cong Wang, Yi-yi Zhang, Ping Liu. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Guanxinkang on expression of PPARγ-LXRα-ABCA1 pathway in ApoE-knockout mice with atherosclerosis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(7): 814-820.
[13] Dong-mei Zhang, Li-xia Lou, Ai-ming Wu, Xi-ying Lü, Zhao-juan Hu, Yan-hong Zhang, Hong-fang Liu. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and Potentilla discolor mixture on insulin resistance and its related mRNA expressions in KKAy mice with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(7): 821-826.
[14] Surendra Kr. Sharma, Naveen Goyal. Protective effect of Heliotropium eichwaldi against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(5): 555-560.
[15] Jing Guo, Ju-yong Wang, Zhan Zheng, Qing Wang, Chang-sheng Dong . Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Feiyanning Decoction on the ratio of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and expression of transcription factor Foxp3 in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(5): 584-590.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Jin-zhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xin-qing Zhang, Qi Bi, Xin Ma, Zhi-liang Wang, Xiao-bin Li, Shu-li Shen, Lin Li, Zhen-yun Wu, Li-yan Fang, Xiao-dong Zhao, Ying-chun Miao, Peng-wen Wang, Ying Ren, Jun-xiang Yin, Yong-yan Wang, Beijing United Study Group on MCI of the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments. An explanation on "guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol)". Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 15-21
[2] Jin-rong Fu. Establishment of multivariate diagnosis and treatment system of modern gynecology of traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 22-24
[3] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[4] Yi-ting He, Qing-lin Zha, Jian-ping Yu, Yong Tan, Cheng Lu, Ai-ping Lv. Principal factor analysis of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlations with efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 32-36
[5] Jun Cai, Hua Wang, Sheng Zhou, Bin Wu, Hua-rong Song, Zheng-rong Xuan. Effect of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 37-40
[6] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[7] SUN Ming-yu, ZUO Jian, DUAN Ji-feng, HAN Jun, FAN Shi-ming, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Li-fang, YAO Ming-hui. Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 51-59
[8] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 82
[9] Guo-hong Yuan, Xiao-jing Pang, He-chao Ma. Synergic effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in reducing toxicity of cytoxan in tumor-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 83-88
[10] Ning-qun Wang, Liang-duo Jiang, Zong-xing Li. Research progress in asthma-related quality of life. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 93-97