Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2011, Vol. 9 ›› Issue (9): 941-947.doi: 10.3736/jcim20110904

• Methodology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Ridit analysis of experimental data from animal models of yang deficiency induced by different doses of hydrocortisone

Qian Zhao1, Rui Jin1, Bing Zhang1(), Sen-mao Liu2, Min Li1, Xin Liu1, Lian-zhen Li1, Qian Zhang1   

  1. 1. School of Chinese Material Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China
    2. School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2011-05-10 Accepted:2011-05-31 Online:2011-09-20 Published:2011-09-15
  • Contact: Zhang Bing E-mail:zhangbing6@263.net

Objective: Hydrocortisone-induced yang-deficiency animal model has now become the generally accepted model of yang deficiency. However, assessing the most appropriate dose of hydrocortisone is a long-term challenge. For analyzing the modeling dose, the authors have built several kinds of yang-deficiency models induced by hydrocortisone at different doses, and analyzed the experimental data with various mathematical statistical methods. In order to discuss the effects of the modeling dose on the basis of previous research, the authors introduced Ridit analysis.

Methods: After categorizing 27 batches of experiments with four different doses (including 2.5, 3.75, 10 and 20 mg/kg), the data were standardized and the data type was changed to meet the needs of subsequent calculations. Then, by using Ridit analysis, the authors compared the variation of 19 biochemistry indexes involving nervous-endocrine system, immune system, metabolic system and the function of the liver and kidney, so as to analyze the similarities and differences of those yang-deficiency models mentioned above. The effects of modeling dose were then discussed.

Results: With regard to the overall state of the animal model, the difference between the models induced by different doses of hydrocortisone (2.5, 3.75, 10 and 20 mg/kg) showed no statistical significance, indicating that differences in hydrocortisone dose barely lead to significant changes in yang-deficiency models. For the trends of changing in different indexes, indexes had different performances when the doses differs: gonad indexes (estradiol and testosterone) showed better performance in 2.5 mg/kg group, immunological indexes (immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G) showed better performance in 3.75 mg/kg group and metabolic indexes (triglyceride and total cholesterol) showed better performance in 10 mg/kg group, etc. This indicates that the dose of hydrocortisone should be determined according to the research purposes.

Conclusion: Ridit analysis can be used as an integration analysis method for animal models of yang deficiency induced by hydrocortisone at different doses.

Key words: Ridit analysis, yang deficiency, hydrocortisone, disease models, animal, data interpretation, statistical, rats

Table 1

Amount of every experiment"

Dose (mg/kg) Batch (n) Animal number of each batch (n)
2.5 6 20, 10, 12, 12, 12, 12
3.75 6 12, 12, 10, 10, 10, 12
10 4 10, 10, 10, 10
20 11 10 ,10, 10, 9, 12 ,12, 10, 9, 10, 12, 12

Table 2

Level frequency of albumin"

Interval Frequency of various doses Sum
2.5
(mg/kg)
3.75
(mg/kg)
10
(mg/kg)
20
(mg/kg)
[0.5, 1) 3 4 4 9 20
[0.1, 0.5) 29 24 8 37 98
(–0.1, 0.1) 17 16 8 25 66
[–0.1, –0.5) 23 19 20 33 95
[–0.5, –1) 6 3 0 2 11
Sum 78 66 40 96 290

Table 3

Ridit value calculation of standard group"

Interval a b c d e
[0.5, 1) 20 10.0 10.0 0.035
[0.1, 0.5) 98 49.0 20 69.0 0.238
(–0.1, 0.1) 66 33.0 118 151.0 0.521
[–0.1, –0.5) 95 47.5 184 231.5 0.798
[–0.5, –1) 11 5.5 279 284.5 0.981
Sum 290

Table 4

R value and 95% confidence interval of albumin in different groups"

Group R value 95% confidence interval
2.5 mg/kg 0.514 0.450 1–0.578 2
3.75 mg/kg 0.489 0.419 6–0.558 9
10 mg/kg 0.554 0.464 8–0.643 8
20 mg/kg 0.476 0.420 9–0.530 8

Table 5

$\overline{R_{k}}$ value"

Index $\overline{R_{k}}$ of various doses P value
2.5 (mg/kg) 3.75 (mg/kg) 10 (mg/kg) 20 (mg/kg)
Triiodothyronine 0.423 0.505 0.645 0.499 0.001
Estradiol 0.553 0.520 0.347 0.508 0.003
Alanine aminotransferase 0.494 0.414 0.567 0.541 0.021
Blood urea nitrogen 0.469 0.601 0.504 0.474 0.062
Immunoglobulin G 0.463 0.622 0.502 0.483 0.072
Lactic dehydrogenase 0.446 0.563 0.540 0.492 0.101
Thyroxne 0.559 0.483 0.499 0.469 0.190
Testosterone 0.523 0.434 0.500 0.518 0.278
Glucose 0.543 0.459 0.518 0.489 0.341
Total protein 0.545 0.484 0.451 0.496 0.355
Complement 3 0.445 0.503 0.543 0.510 0.394
Albumin 0.514 0.489 0.554 0.476 0.487
Uric acid 0.506 0.528 0.444 0.499 0.542
Immunoglobulin M 0.472 0.560 0.514 0.489 0.560
Total cholesterol 0.520 0.485 0.465 0.507 0.751
Triacylglycerol 0.503 0.517 0.526 0.481 0.792
Aspartate aminotransferase 0.479 0.520 0.521 0.492 0.800
Corticosteroid 0.508 0.505 0.517 0.486 0.924
Creatinine 0.495 0.487 0.523 0.503 0.940

Table 6

Index distribution"

Index Distribution
[0.5, 1) [0.1, 0.5) (–0.1, 0.1) [–0.1, –0.5) [–0.5, –1)
Albumin 20 98 66 95 11
Blood urea nitrogen 23 73 65 86 11
Complement 3 15 83 50 75 19
Corticosteroid 34 76 69 110 11
Creatinine 25 97 50 67 7
Estradiol 20 88 67 105 10
Glucose 13 84 72 109 22
Aspartate aminotransferase 19 78 65 71 12
Alanine aminotransferase 23 73 58 88 16
Immunoglobulin G 12 71 64 80 15
Immunoglobulin M 25 68 53 78 8
Lactic dehydrogenase 25 108 53 89 15
Testosterone 28 58 71 117 4
Triiodothyronine 13 82 78 106 21
Thyroxne 24 65 71 117 13
Total cholesterol 26 86 77 104 7
Triacylglycerol 31 58 80 119 2
Total protein 23 109 76 80 12
Uric acid 26 61 81 105 7
[1] Lu WL, Fang ZQ . Appraisal of the modeling methods of yang deficiency syndrome in animals[J]. Shanghai Zhong Yi Yao Da Xue Xue Bao, 2004,18(4):44-48
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-861X.2004.04.016
卢文丽, 方肇勤 . 阳虚证动物模型的造模方法与评析[J]. 上海中医药大学学报, 2004,18(4):44-48
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-861X.2004.04.016
[2] Jin R, Zhang B, Liu SM, Ni L, Li M, Li LZ . Mathematical analysis of characteristics of glucocorticoid-induced yang deficiency or yin deficiency syndrome in animal models based on information entropy theory[J]. J Chin Integr Med, 2011,9(1):15-21
金锐, 张冰, 刘森茂, 倪莉, 李敏, 李连珍 . 基于数据信息熵探讨糖皮质激素诱导的阳虚或阴虚证候动物模型的状态特征[J]. 中西医结合学报, 2011,9(1):15-21
[3] Jin R, Lin Q, Liu SM, Zhao Q, Zhang Q, Zhang B . Mathematical analysis of the relationship between yang deficiency syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine and its objective indicators in clinical literature[J]. J Chin Integr Med, 2010,8(7):678-683
金锐, 林茜, 刘森茂, 赵茜, 张倩, 张冰 . 基于数学方法的中医“阳虚证”与临床文献中客观指标的关联分析[J]. 中西医结合学报, 2010,8(7):678-683
[4] Ni L, Zhang B . Re-recognition of animal model of both yin and yang deficiency induced by glucocorticoid[J]. Beijing Zhong Yi Yao Da Xue Xue Bao, 2009,32(5):327-330
倪莉, 张冰 . 糖皮质激素诱导阴虚阳虚状态动物模型的再认识[J]. 北京中医药大学学报, 2009,32(5):327-330
[5] Wang WJ, Shen ZY, Zhang XM, Chen SZ . A preliminary observation of functions of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in patients with deficiency of shen yang(DSYa) and male elders[J]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 1982,2(3):149-152
王文健, 沈自尹, 张新民, 陈素珍 . 肾阳虚患者和老年人(男性)的下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴功能初步观察[J]. 中西医结合杂志, 1982,2(3):149-152
[6] Yu LP, Pan YT, Wu YS . Research on data normalization methods in multi-attribute evaluation[J]. Tu Shu Qing Bao Gong Zuo, 2009,53(12):136-139
俞立平, 潘云涛, 武夷山 . 学术期刊综合评价数据标准化方法研究[J]. 图书情报工作, 2009,53(12):136-139
[7] Zhang LN . Ridit analyses of two and multiple sets of ranked statistics data with SAS software[J]. Zhongguo Wei Sheng Tong Ji, 2007,24(4):432-433
张莉娜 . 两组及多组等级资料Ridit分析的SAS实现[J]. 中国卫生统计, 2007,24(4):432-433
[8] Ning K . Evaluating curative effect quality of different ages by using Ridit analysis[J]. Zhongguo Wei Sheng Tong Ji, 2010,27(1):70
宁葵 . 运用Ridit分析法评价不同年龄组疗效质量[J]. 中国卫生统计, 2010,27(1):70
[9] Bross IDJ . How to use ridit analysis[J]. Biometrics, 1958,14(1):18-38
doi: 10.2307/2527727
[10] Flora JD. A note on ridit analysis. Technical Report. Motor Vehicle, Manufacturers Association . 1974: UM-HSRI-SA-74-10.
[11] Jin PH, Chen F. Medical statistics methods(3rd ed)[M]. Shanghai: Fudan University Press, 2009,( 3rd ed):248
金丕焕, 陈峰 . 医用统计方法(第3版)[M]. 上海: 复旦大学出版社, 2009,( 第3版):248
[12] Zhao QB, Xu YY . The third lesson: How to confirm the sample size in sampling inspection[J]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2001,35(3):201-203
赵清波, 徐勇勇 . 第三讲如何确定抽样研究所需要的样本量[J]. 中华预防医学杂志, 2001,35(3):201-203
[1] Stefania Lamponi, Anna Maria Aloisi, Claudia Bonechi, Marco Consumi, Alessandro Donati, Gemma Leone, Claudio Rossi, Gabriella Tamasi, Luana Ghiandai, Ersilia Ferrini, Paolo Fiorenzani, Ilaria Ceccarelli, Agnese Magnani. Evaluation of in vitro cell and blood compatibility and in vivo analgesic activity of plant-derived dietary supplements. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(3): 213-220.
[2] Morufu Eyitayo Balogun, Elizabeth Enohnyaket Besong, Jacinta Nkechi Obimma, Ogochukwu Sophia Mbamalu, Fankou Serges Athanase Djobissie. Protective roles of Vigna subterranea (Bambara nut) in rats with aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(5): 342-349.
[3] Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Raphael Ellis Teme. Hot aqueous leaf extract of Lasianthera africana (Icacinaceae) attenuates rifampicin-isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 263-272.
[4] Yee Chi Peggy Wong. Need of integrated dietary therapy for persons with diabetes mellitus and “unhealthy” body constitution presentations. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(4): 255-268.
[5] Arthur Yin Fan, Sarah Faggert . Dr. Gene Bruno: The beginning of the acupuncture profession in the United States (1969-1979) — Acupuncture, medical acupuncture and animal acupuncture. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(5): 281-288.
[6] Kylie Connolly, Douglas Jackson, Candice Pullen, Andrew Fenning. Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism by Crassostrea gigas oyster extract inhibits noradrenaline-induced vascular contraction in Wistar rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(3): 194-200.
[7] Hussein O. B. Oloyede, Matthew C. Adaja, Taofeek O. Ajiboye, Musa O. Salawu. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 105-114.
[8] Udhaya Lavinya Baskaran, Sherry Joseph Martin, Rasool Mahaboobkhan, Sabina Evan Prince. Protective role of Triphala, an Indian traditional herbal formulation, against the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene in Wistar albino rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 115-121.
[9] Vamsi Reddy, Arvind Sridhar, Roberto F. Machado, Jiwang Chen. High sodium causes hypertension: Evidence from clinical trials and animal experiments. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(1): 1-8.
[10] Anirudha A. Lande, Shirishkumar D. Ambavade, Uma S. Swami, Prafulla P. Adkara Prashant D. Ambavade, Arun B. Waghamare. Saponins isolated from roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum reduce acute and chronic inflammation and histone deacetylase. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(1): 25-33.
[11] Elizabeth Abidemi Balogun, Sylvia Orume Malomo, Joseph Oluwatope Adebayo, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Ayodele Olufemi Soladoye, Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Stephen Olubunmi Oguntoye, Abiola Samuel Babatunde, Oluwole Busayo Akinola . In vivo antimalarial activity and toxicological effects of methanolic extract of Cocos nucifera (Dwarf red variety) husk fibre. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(6): 504-511.
[12] Xin-fang Zhang, Ji Zhu, Wen-ye Geng, Shu-jun Zhao, Chuan-wei Jiang, Sheng-rong Cai, Miao Cheng, Chuan-yun Zhou, Zi-bing Liu. Electroacupuncture at Feishu (BL13) and Zusanli (ST36) down-regulates the expression of orexins and their receptors in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 417-424.
[13] Urmila Aswar, Mayuri Gurav, Ganesh More, Khaled Rashed, Manoj Aswar. Effect of aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. on postmenopausal syndrome in ovariectomized rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 439-446.
[14] Benjamin Perry, Junzeng Zhang, Tarek Saleh, Yanwen Wang. Liuwei Dihuang, a traditional Chinese herbal formula, suppresses chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in obese rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 447-454.
[15] Upendarrao Golla, Praveen Kumar Gajam, Solomon Sunder Bhimathati. Evaluation of diuretic and laxative activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf in rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(4): 372-378.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[3] Zhi-chun Jin. Problems in establishing clinical guideline for integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 5-8
[4] Wei Zhang, Xiang-feng Lu, Xiao-mei Zhang, Jian-jun Wu, Liang-duo Jiang. A rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by infusing bleomycin quickly through tracheal intubation. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 60-67
[5] Guo-hong Yuan, Xiao-jing Pang, He-chao Ma. Synergic effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in reducing toxicity of cytoxan in tumor-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 83-88
[6] Daniel Weber, Janelle M Wheat, Geoffrey M Currie. Inflammation and cancer: Tumor initiation, progression and metastasis,and Chinese botanical medicines. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1006-1013
[7] Yan-bo Zhu , Qi Wang, Cheng-yu Wu, Guo-ming Pang, Jian-xiong Zhao, Shi-lin Shen, Zhong-yuan Xia , Xue Yan . Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1023-1035
[8] Bing Hu , Hong-mei An , Ke-ping Shen , Qin Du. Senescence-inducing effects of Chinese herbal medicine Tenglong Buzhong Decoction on human colon carcinoma LS-174-T cells and the mechanism. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1048-1052
[9] Jing-yuan Mao, Chang-xiao Liu, Heng-he Wang, Guang-li Wei , Zhen-peng Zhang, Jie Xing, Wang Xian liang , Ying-fei Bi . Effects of Shenmai Injection on serum concentration and pharmacokinetics of digoxin in dogs with heart failure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1070-1074
[10] Tao Wang , Feng Qin. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Xiaoyao Powder on monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats with postpartum depression. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1075-1079