Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2012, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (8): 918-924.doi: 10.3736/jcim20120813

Previous Articles     Next Articles

Establishment and evaluation of a rat model of ulcerative colitis with syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency

Zi-hui Li1, Jian Wang1(), Rong-lin Cai2, You-wen Wang3, Jian-peng Hu4   

  1. 1. School of Clinical Traditional Chinese Medicine, Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038, Anhui Province, China
    2. Institute of Acupuncture, Moxibustion, and Meridians, Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038, Anhui Province, China
    3. School of Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China
    4. Graduate School of Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038, Anhui Province, China
  • Received:2012-01-16 Accepted:2012-04-04 Online:2012-08-20 Published:2018-08-15
  • Contact: Jian Wang

Objective: To establish a rat model of ulcerative colitis with syndrome of spleen deficiency and dampness stagnancy.

Methods: Sixty rats were divided into normal control group, ulcerative colitis group, ulcerative colitis with syndrome of spleen deficiency and dampness stagnancy group (model group) and strengthening spleen for resolving dampness group. Ulcerative colitis in rats was induced by enema containing trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and ethanol. The rats in the model group were suffered from standing in water, limiting sleeping time and abnormal diet based on administration of TNBS and ethanol. The rats in the spleen strengthening and dampness resolving group were gastrically administered with Shenlin Baizhu Powder, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Symptoms, signs and pathological changes in colon tissue of rats were observed after modeling. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum of rats were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: The rats in the model group showed lethargy, poor appetite, loss of energy, diarrhea and bloody stool. Their body weight decreased significantly compared with the normal control group, and similar changes were found in the comparison of food intake, drinking amount, urine amount, stool wet weight and assay of spontaneous activity (P<0.05). When observed under a light microscope, the colon tissues of rats in the model group showed mucosal edema, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration and ulceration. The degree of colon injury and IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels were significantly increased (P<0.05) as compared to those in the normal control group. The changes mentioned above were improved by Shenlin Baizhu Powder (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The rat model of ulcerative colitis with syndrome of spleen deficiency and dampness stagnancy is successfully induced and has the characteristics of ulcerative colitis of humans both in pathological changes and in syndrome.

Key words: ulcerative colitis, syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency, disease models, animal, rats

Table 1

The score criteria of colon injury degree"

Score Colon injury degree
0 No injury
1 Mucosal hyperaemia and edema, no ulcer
2 Mucosal hyperaemia, edema and mild erosion, no ulcer
3 Mucosal hyperaemia, edema and moderate erosion, with single ulcer
4 Mucosal hyperaemia, edema and severe erosion, with multiple ulcers
5 Mucosal hyperaemia, edema and severe erosion, area of the ulcers >1 cm2

Table 2

Comparison of macroscopic quantization indexes among four groups of rats ($\bar{x}$±s)"

Group n Body
weight (g)
Food intake
in 24 h
(g/kg weight)
Drinking amount
in 24 h
(g/kg weight)
Urine amount
in 24 h
(g/kg weight)
Stool wet
weight in 24 h
(g/kg weight)
Assay of
Normal control 15 271.8±30.2 112.3±12.8 195.7±21.3 40.5±5.9 31.8±3.7 901.3±62.7
TNBS model 15 245.4±20.3**△ 101.4±16.7*△ 147.5±18.7**△ 31.4±3.1** 50.6±6.4** 595.2±52.3**△△
Internal and
external factors
plus TNBS model
14 208.8±21.7** 92.5±18.9** 120.5±15.6** 29.8±3.5** 58.4±6.8** 458.4±47.1**
Shenling Baizhu
258.9±27.8△△ 107.8±13.2△△ 161.7±17.5△△ 39.8±4.7△△ 33.7±4.2△△ 756.7±56.5△△

Table 3

Comparison of the score of colon injury among four groups of rats ($\bar{x}$±s)"

Group n Score of colon injury
Normal control 15 0.79±0.25
TNBS model 15 3.68±0.84**△
Internal and external factors plus TNBS model 14 4.82±0.96**
Shenling Baizhu Powder 15 1.21±0.50△△

Figure 1

Colon tissue of rats stained with hematoxylin and eosin (Light microscopy, ×200) A: Normal control group; B: Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid group; C: Internal and external factors plus trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid group; D: Shenling Baizhu Powder group. "

Table 4

Levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in serum of rats in different groups ($\bar{x}$±s, ng/L)"

Group n IL-6 IL-8 TNF-α
Normal control 15 27.51±2.78 34.78±3.86 0.89±0.10
TNBS model 15 37.82±5.65** 51.21±6.38** 1.69±0.15**
Internal and external factors plus TNBS model 14 39.64±4.23** 51.62±5.49** 1.87±0.19**
Shenling Baizhu Powder 15 29.01±3.28△△ 40.65±4.02*△△ 1.02±0.11△△
[1] Li HX . Observation on Shenlin Baizhu powder with herbal enema in the treatment of 47 cases of ulcerative colitis with syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency[J]. Liaoning Zhong Yi Za Zhi, 2008,35(6):866
李惠霞 . 参苓白术散加减配合中药灌肠治疗脾虚湿困型溃疡性结肠炎47例[J]. 辽宁中医杂志, 2008,35(6):866
[2] Yue H, Wang TF, Chen JM, Yang L, Zhao D, Zhao Y, Wu XY, Qu K, Yu LL, Zhao FC . Modern literature of common syndromes and syndrome factors of ulcerative colitis[J]. Beijing Zhong Yi Yao Da Xue Xue Bao, 2010,33(5):306-308
doi: 10.3788/HPLPB20102202.0415
岳宏, 王天芳, 陈剑明, 杨璐, 赵丹, 赵燕, 吴秀艳, 屈凯, 于丽丽, 赵绂诚 . 溃疡性结肠炎常见中医证候及证候要素的现代文献研究[J]. 北京中医药大学学报, 2010,33(5):306-308
doi: 10.3788/HPLPB20102202.0415
[3] Wang XL . Research progress on the rat models of ulcerative colitis[J]. Shanxi Zhong Yi, 2011,27(3):54-55, 60
王小莲 . 溃疡性结肠炎大鼠模型研究进展[J]. 山西中医, 2011,27(3):54-55, 60
[4] Huang XS, Shen T, Liu W, Luo YX, Wu SG, Xu W, Hou JY, Su XH, Zhang P . Effect of Pingwei powder on part of immunological function in rats with syndrome of dampness blocking spleen and stomach[J]. Zhong Yi Za Zhi, 2007,48(8):730-732
黄秀深, 沈涛, 刘伟, 罗玉熙, 吴施国, 徐薇, 侯建业, 苏先华, 张萍 . 平胃散对湿困脾胃证模型大鼠部分免疫功能的影响[J]. 中医杂志, 2007,48(8):730-732
[5] Wang XQ, Wang XY . Influences of Kuijie decoction administered by two ways on levels of serum IFN-γ and IL-4 in rats with ulcerative colitis[J]. Beijing Zhong Yi Yao Da Xue Xue Bao, 2010,33(7):468-471
王雪茜, 王新月 . 溃结饮2种给药途径对大鼠溃疡性结肠炎血清IFN-γ和IL-4的影响[J]. 北京中医药大学学报, 2010,33(7):468-471
[6] Xu SY, Bian RL, Chen X. Experimental methodology of pharmacology.3rd ed[M]. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House, 2002,203
徐叔云, 卞如濂, 陈修 . 药理实验方法学.第3版[M]. 北京: 人民卫生出版社, 2002,203
[7] Deng TT, Li HD. Syndrome standard of traditional Chinese medicine[M]. Guangzhou: Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 1990, 145-147
邓铁涛, 李慧德 . 中医证候规范[M]. 广州: 广东科技出版社, 1990, 145-147
[8] Wang YH. Subject on dampness disease of traditional Chinese medicine[M]. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House, 1997,118
王彦晖 . 中医湿病学[M]. 北京: 人民卫生出版社, 1997,118
[9] Kuang TY, Wang QQ. The pathogenesis of syndromes and signs of traditional Chinese medicine[M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Popular Science Press, 1995,89
匡调元, 王庆其 . 中医证候病理学[M]. 上海: 上海科学普及出版社, 1995,89
[10] Drug Administration of the Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China. Guiding principle of clinical research on spleen deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine[J]. Zhongguo Yi Yao Xue Bao, 1988,3(5):71-72
中华人民共和国卫生部药政局. 中药治疗脾虚证的临床研究指导原则[J]. 中国医药学报, 1988,3(5):71-72
[11] Chen XY, Zhou YS, Fan YL, Zhang YP, Jiang XL, Zou SJ, Cui CD, Qiao WB, Li YM, Wang S, Wang ZY, Shao DB, Wang LF, Pang DB, Chi XS . Preliminary study on the standardization for animal models with spleen-qi deficiency syndrome[J]. Zhongguo Yi Yao Xue Bao, 2001,16(4):52-58
陈小野, 周永生, 樊雅莉, 张宇鹏, 蒋小丽, 邹世洁, 崔成德, 乔文彪, 李玉梅, 王肃, 王左原, 邵德彬, 王丽芳, 庞大本, 池旭生 . 脾气虚证动物模型规范化的初步研究[J]. 中国医药学报, 2001,16(4):52-58
[12] Zheng XB, Liu HB, Feng YL, Dai SX . Huangqin decoction lowers the number of mast cells in ulcerative colitis in rats with dampness and heat syndrome[J]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 2011,31(2):252-255
郑学宝, 刘洪波, 封艳玲, 戴世学 . 肥大细胞在湿热型溃疡性结肠炎大鼠的表达与黄芩汤的调节[J]. 南方医科大学学报, 2011,31(2):252-255
[13] Liu XP, Jia YX, Wu JJ . Effects of Tongxie Yaofang on expressions of CD44, CD54, and CD62p in rats with ulcerative colitis of liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome[J]. Zhong Yao Yao Li Yu Lin Chuang, 2010,26(6):10-12
刘喜平, 贾育新, 吴建军 . 痛泻要方对溃疡性结肠炎肝郁脾虚证大鼠模型CD44、CD54及CD62p的影响[J]. 中药药理与临床, 2010,26(6):10-12
[14] 王忠成 . 溃疡性结肠炎的证候分布规律研究. 南京: 南京中医药大学. 2009.
Wang ZC.Research on the distribution law of traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in chronic ulcerative colitis. Nanjing: Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine. 2009. Chinese with abstract in English.
[15] Song YX.Research on the traditional Chinese medicine syndromes of ulcerative colitis. Beijing: Beijing University of Chinese Medicine. 2005. Chinese with abstract in English.
宋银雪 . 溃疡性结肠炎中医证候研究. 北京: 北京中医药大学. 2005.
[16] Duan Z, Wang WW . Research status on rat models of ulcerative colitis[J]. Chongqing Yi Xue, 2007,36(7):661-663
段征, 汪维伟 . 溃疡性结肠炎大鼠模型研究现况[J]. 重庆医学, 2007,36(7):661-663
[17] Liang HT, Song JR . Research on the correlation between TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 levels and ulcerative colitis[J]. Zhongguo Xian Dai Yao Wu Ying Yong, 2010,4(21):92
梁皓天, 宋静荣 . TNF-α、IL-6、IL-8水平与溃疡性结肠炎相关性研究[J]. 中国现代药物应用, 2010,4(21):92
[18] Kou ST, Wu HG, Shi DR . Correlation of interleukin and ulcerative colitis[J]. Shi Jie Hua Ren Xiao Hua Za Zhi, 2006,14(4):405-411
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1009-3079.2006.04.009
口锁堂, 吴焕淦, 施达仁 . 白介素与溃疡性结肠炎[J]. 世界华人消化杂志, 2006,14(4):405-411
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1009-3079.2006.04.009
[19] Indaram AV, Visvalingam V, Locke M, Bank S . Mucosal cytokine production in radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis compared with inflammatory bowel disease[J]. Am J Gastroenterol, 2000,95(5):1221-1225
doi: 10.1111/ajg.2000.95.issue-5
[1] Bing-rong Li, Shi-yun Shao, Long Yuan, Ru Jia, Jian Sun, Qing Ji, Hua Sui, Li-hong Zhou, Yi Zhang, Hui Liu, Qi Li, Yan Wang, Bi-meng Zhang. Effects of mild moxibustion on intestinal microbiome and NLRP3 inflammasome in rats with 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 144-157.
[2] Sitthichai Iamsaard, Supatcharee Arun, Jaturon Burawat, Supataechasit Yannasithinon, Saranya Tongpan, Sudtida Bunsueb, Natthapol Lapyuneyong, Pannawat Choowong-in, Nareelak Tangsrisakda, Chadaporn Chaimontri, Wannisa Sukhorum. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and reproductive toxicity of aqueous extract of Thai Mucuna pruriens seeds. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(3): 265-273.
[3] Stefania Lamponi, Anna Maria Aloisi, Claudia Bonechi, Marco Consumi, Alessandro Donati, Gemma Leone, Claudio Rossi, Gabriella Tamasi, Luana Ghiandai, Ersilia Ferrini, Paolo Fiorenzani, Ilaria Ceccarelli, Agnese Magnani. Evaluation of in vitro cell and blood compatibility and in vivo analgesic activity of plant-derived dietary supplements. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(3): 213-220.
[4] Morufu Eyitayo Balogun, Elizabeth Enohnyaket Besong, Jacinta Nkechi Obimma, Ogochukwu Sophia Mbamalu, Fankou Serges Athanase Djobissie. Protective roles of Vigna subterranea (Bambara nut) in rats with aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(5): 342-349.
[5] Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Raphael Ellis Teme. Hot aqueous leaf extract of Lasianthera africana (Icacinaceae) attenuates rifampicin-isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 263-272.
[6] Arthur Yin Fan, Sarah Faggert . Dr. Gene Bruno: The beginning of the acupuncture profession in the United States (1969-1979) — Acupuncture, medical acupuncture and animal acupuncture. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(5): 281-288.
[7] Kylie Connolly, Douglas Jackson, Candice Pullen, Andrew Fenning. Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism by Crassostrea gigas oyster extract inhibits noradrenaline-induced vascular contraction in Wistar rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(3): 194-200.
[8] Udhaya Lavinya Baskaran, Sherry Joseph Martin, Rasool Mahaboobkhan, Sabina Evan Prince. Protective role of Triphala, an Indian traditional herbal formulation, against the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene in Wistar albino rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 115-121.
[9] Hussein O. B. Oloyede, Matthew C. Adaja, Taofeek O. Ajiboye, Musa O. Salawu. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 105-114.
[10] Anirudha A. Lande, Shirishkumar D. Ambavade, Uma S. Swami, Prafulla P. Adkara Prashant D. Ambavade, Arun B. Waghamare. Saponins isolated from roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum reduce acute and chronic inflammation and histone deacetylase. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(1): 25-33.
[11] Vamsi Reddy, Arvind Sridhar, Roberto F. Machado, Jiwang Chen. High sodium causes hypertension: Evidence from clinical trials and animal experiments. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(1): 1-8.
[12] Elizabeth Abidemi Balogun, Sylvia Orume Malomo, Joseph Oluwatope Adebayo, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Ayodele Olufemi Soladoye, Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Stephen Olubunmi Oguntoye, Abiola Samuel Babatunde, Oluwole Busayo Akinola . In vivo antimalarial activity and toxicological effects of methanolic extract of Cocos nucifera (Dwarf red variety) husk fibre. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(6): 504-511.
[13] Urmila Aswar, Mayuri Gurav, Ganesh More, Khaled Rashed, Manoj Aswar. Effect of aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. on postmenopausal syndrome in ovariectomized rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 439-446.
[14] Xin-fang Zhang, Ji Zhu, Wen-ye Geng, Shu-jun Zhao, Chuan-wei Jiang, Sheng-rong Cai, Miao Cheng, Chuan-yun Zhou, Zi-bing Liu. Electroacupuncture at Feishu (BL13) and Zusanli (ST36) down-regulates the expression of orexins and their receptors in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 417-424.
[15] Benjamin Perry, Junzeng Zhang, Tarek Saleh, Yanwen Wang. Liuwei Dihuang, a traditional Chinese herbal formula, suppresses chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in obese rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 447-454.
Full text



[1] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[2] Hai-feng Wei, Bai-liu Ya, Ling Zhao, Cui-fei Ye, Li Zhang, Lin Li. Evaluation of tongue manifestation of blood stasis syndrome and its relationship with blood rheological disorder in a rat model of transient brain ischemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 73-76
[3] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 76
[4] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 82
[5] Liang-ping Hu, Hui Gao. Discrimination of errors in statistical analysis of medical papers published in the first issue of 2006 in Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 98-106
[6] Yan-bo Zhu , Qi Wang, Cheng-yu Wu, Guo-ming Pang, Jian-xiong Zhao, Shi-lin Shen, Zhong-yuan Xia , Xue Yan . Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1023-1035
[7] Wei Xu, Meng Shi, Jian-gang Liu, Cheng-long Wang . Collagen protein expressions in ischemic myocardium of rats with acute myocardial infarction and effects of qi-tonifying, yin-tonifying and blood-activating herbs and detoxifying and blood-activating herbs. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1041-1047
[8] Tao Wang , Feng Qin. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Xiaoyao Powder on monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats with postpartum depression. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1075-1079
[9] Ying Xu , Chang-chun Zeng , Xiu-yu Cai , Rong-ping Guo , Guang Nie , Ying Jin. Chromaticity and optical spectrum colorimetry of the tongue color in different syndromes of primary hepatic carcinoma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1263-1271
[10] Xiang-ying Mao , Qin Bian , Zi-yin Shen. Analysis of the osteogenetic effects exerted on mesenchymal stem cell strain C3H10T1/2 by icariin via MAPK signaling pathway in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1272-1278