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Protective effect of Huaxia shallot preparation on human umbilical vein endothelial cell injury induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein and its mechanism
Jie-mei Zhang, Jie Guo, Xin Tu, Zhao-hong Shi, Jian-jun Hao, Yu-he Ke, Jiang-feng Guan, Juan-juan He
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2007, 5 (6): 675-680.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20070615
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Objective: To observe the protective effect of Huaxia shallot preparation on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) in vitro.Methods: Ox-LDL was prepared and identified, and HUVECs were cultured. After 2-hour intervention of different drugs and 24-hour following intervention of Ox-LDL, the number of HUVECs was observed by phase contrast optical microscope and the activity of the HUVECs was observed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) technique. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and nitric oxide (NO) content were assayed by respective kit. The protein expressions and mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were measured by western blot technique and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results: Ox-LDL could increase the apoptosis rate of the HUVECs and decrease the NO release as compared with the blank control group (P<0.05). These effects induced by Ox-LDL were all significantly inhibited by Huaxia shallot preparation. It could up-regulate the protein expressions and mRNA levels of PPAR-γ and eNOS significantly (P<0.05). Huaxia shallot preparation could decrease the apoptosis rate of the HUVECs.Conclusion: Ox-LDL may be involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis by injuring the endothelial cells directly and may cause the endothelial dysfunction. Huaxia shallot preparation can protect against Ox-LDL induced endothelial cell injury by up-regulating the protein expressions and mRNA levels of PPAR-γ and eNOS. It suggests that Huaxia shallot preparation may play a role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

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Discussion of time and space differentiation of three-yin and three-yang in Shanghan Lun
Wen-hui Ma, Xiao-hong Sun
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2005, 3 (4): 257-259.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20050402
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The concept of "three-yin and three-yang" in Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Diseases), a classic written by Zhang Zhongjing in Han Dynasty, has been always the focus of dispute in successive dynasties. The essence of "three-yin and three-yang" has not been fully revealed up till now. Through studying the six divisions of day and night, the six diseases, the combination of syndromes, the complicated diseases, the complete recovery time and the space division of "three-yin and three-yang", the authors draw a conclusion that the "three-yin and three-yang" in Shanghan Lun is a concept of time-sequence, which is associated with the location of disease in space. So it is suggested that the "six diseases" in Shanghan Lun is a categorization for exogenous febrile diseases, and this categorization reveals a sort of inner relationship between the emergence, development, transformation of the febrile diseases and the time.

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A brief analysis of English translation of the book title of Shanghan Zabing Lun
Ling Liu​, Zhao Xu​, Hui Yu​
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2006, 4 (6): 661-662.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20060626
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Introducing Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine
Sonya E. Pritzker, Ka-Kit Hui
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2014, 12 (4): 394-396.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60032-7
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This article introduces the document, Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine, published in PDF form online in both Chinese and English. This 20-page document includes several sections describing why the Considerations is necessary, the specificity of texts in Chinese medicine; the history of translation in Chinese medicine; who constitutes an ideal translator of Chinese medicine; what types of language exist in Chinese medicine; and specific issues in the translation of Chinese medicine, such as domestication versus foreignization, technical terminology, period-specific language, style, polysemy, and etymological translation. The final section offers a brief advisory for consumers, and concludes with a call to further discussion, and action, specifically in the development of international collaborative efforts towards the creation of more rigorous guidelines for the translation of Chinese medicine. The current article provides an overview of several of these sections, and includes links to the original document.

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Cited: Baidu(13)
The development and current status of integrative medicine at UCLA
Wei-Jun Zhang, Da-Ming Su , Ka-Kit Hui
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2012, 10 (9): 953-960.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20120901
Online available: 15 September 2018

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Cited: Baidu(3)
Accidents in acupuncture treatment: History and current state
Ren Zhang
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (4): 306-313.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040424
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Acupuncture is widely used as an alternative therapy with few side effects because of its simple manipulation and low cost. However, accidents may occur if the practitioner uses it improperly. Early in the Qin dynastuy, the Canon of Medicine mentioned that improper use of acupuncture could cause injury to the body and even death, and it systematically described the occurrence and prevention of acupuncture accidents. Physicians in the successive dynasties frequently reported it, and nealized that the manipulation skills were significantly important in preventing the occurrence of acupuncture accidents.Since the 1950s, acupuncture accidents had been effectively prevented because of the improving of acupuncture instruments, enhancing of the quality of the practitioners, popularizing of sterilization and disseminating of anatomic knowledge. Nevertherless, with the renovating of acupuncture techniques, new accidents may occur constantly. The prevention of acupuncture accidents still should be an arduors task for acupuncturists. Nowadays, acupuncture therapy is being used in more than 140 countries, and acupuncture accidents due to improper application are incrcasing. Prevention of acupuncture accidents has become a global issue deserving of great attention.

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Three advantages of using traditional Chinese medicine to prevent and treat tumor
Chang-quan Ling​, Xiao-qiang Yue, Chen Ling​
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2014, 12 (4): 331-335.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60038-8
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important component of complementary and alternative medicine, has evolved over thousands of years with its own unique system of theories, diagnostics and therapies. TCM has been increasingly used in the last decades and become well known for its significant role in preventing and treating cancer. We believe that TCM possesses advantages over Western medicine in specific aspects at a certain stage of cancer treatment. Here we summarize the advantages of TCM from three aspects: preventing tumorigenesis; attenuating toxicity and enhancing the treatment effect; and reducing tumor recurrence and metastasis.

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Cited: Baidu(242)
Effect of salvianolate on migration of human vascular endothelial cells
Jie Xu, Wei-hu Fan
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2003, 1 (3): 211-214.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20030320
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Objective

To study the effect of salvianolate on the migration of endothelial cells induced by monocytes.


Methods

Transwell-boydom system was used to test the migration of endothelial cells induced by monocytes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method were used to determine the effect of salvianolate on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)and their mRNA of monocytes.


Results

The migration of endothelial cells induced by monocytes was facilitated by salvianolate, compared with the control. After the monocytes were treated by salvianolate for 24 hours, the expression of mRNA of VEGF and bFGF was significantly up-regulated, and the expression of VEGF and bFGF was increased.


Conclusion

The facilitation of salvianolate on the migration of endothelial cells induced by monocytes was observed. Salvianolate stimulates the expression of VEGF and bFGF and their mRNA of monocytes, and salvianolate may have the role of inducing migration of endothelial cells by working on these two factors.

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Tongue conditions and constitution
Tiao-yuan Kuang
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (4): 264-264.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040407
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Professor TANG Han-Jun's thinking in syndrome differentiation and experience in treating breast cancer
Hai-guang Qin
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (4): 297-298.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040420
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Stratified analysis of the relationship between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and health status in the general population based on data of 8448 cases
Yan-bo Zhu, Qi Wang, Ke-fan Chen, Yu-e Wu, Wei-li Hong, Li Liu
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2011, 9 (4): 382-389.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20110406
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Objective: To examine the relationship between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutional types and health status among groups of different age or gender in the general population of China.
Methods: Data of 8 448 cases were randomly sampled from a database of 21 948 cases of a cross-sectional survey on the TCM constitutional types and health status which was carried out in 9 provinces or municipalities of China (Jiangsu, Anhui, Gansu, Qinghai, Fujian, Beijing, Jilin, Jiangxi and Henan) according to gender and age structure of the Chinese population in 2005. Scores of health-related quality of life scale — the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (MOS SF-36) — were analyzed by Nemenyi test to compare the health status of individuals with different constitutional types.
Results: Compared with the gentleness type, the MOS SF-36 scores of the 8 types of pathological constitution were significantly low (P<0.05) among groups of different age or gender. The MOS SF-36 score was the lowest in men of the qi-deficiency, qi-depression and blood-stasis types, while it was the lowest in women of the phlegm-dampness, qi-depression and qi-deficiency types. For the age group of 15 to 34, the special diathesis, qi-depression and blood-stasis types had the lowest MOS SF-36 scores; for the age group of 35 to 59, the qi-deficiency, qi-depression and blood-stasis types had the lowest MOS SF-36 scores; for the age group of over 60, the qi-deficiency, qi-depression and phlegm-dampness types had the lowest MOS SF-36 scores.
Conclusion: In groups of different gender or age, the MOS SF-36 scores of the 8 types of pathological constitution were significantly lower than that of the gentleness type, indicating a deficient health status. The health status of different types of constitution showed different characteristics in groups of different gender or age.

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Effects of language and translation on spreading of traditional Chinese medicine to the West
Chuan-yue Niu
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (1): 78-80.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040129
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Progress of study on the regulation of endothelin and nitrix oxide with Chinese medical herbs
Xu-hui Ma, Jie Zhang
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (2): 152-153.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040226
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ELISA kit for detection of biliary vesicular protein and its preliminary clinical application
Duan Cai, Jian-bin Xiang, Yan-ling Zhang, Bao-jin Ma
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2003, 1 (3): 218-220.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20030323
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Objective

To establish a rapid and precise detective method of 33.5 kd vesicular protein and to screen an effective treatment of cholelithiasis.


Methods

Specific antibody of the biliary vesicular protein was obtained by immunizing rabbits and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was developed. The concentrations of 33.5 kd vesicular protein in serum and bile of gallstone patients and control were examined respectively. The effects of Cholagogue Dry Syrup and Eulektrol Capsule on decreasing 33.5 kd vesicular protein were also studied by ELISA kit.


Results

One-step ELISA equation was Y=0.035 X (r=0.99).The vesicular protein concentrations in serum and bile of cholesterol gallstone group [(179.8±97.9 ) mg/L and (213.4±70.1)mg/L respectively] were significantly (P <0.05) higher than in the pigment stone group and control. Data showed that, with 2-week administration, Cholagogue Dry Syrup significantly decreased both biliary and serum 33.5 kd vesicular protein of cholesterol gallstone patients, while Eulekrol Capsule and control groups didn’t have the same results.


Conclusion

The concentrations of 33.5 kd protein are different in cholesterol gallstone patients and healthy groups which might be related to cholesterol nucleation process. Cholagogue Dry Syrup is of cholagogic and litholytic effect by decreasing biliary lithogenesis.

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Development of international standardization of traditional Chinese medical terminologies: A review of WHO’s second conference on International Classification of Traditional Medicine held in Tokyo
Zhao-guo Li
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2011, 9 (1): 113-115.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20110119
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Dr. Miriam Lee: A heroine for the start of acupuncture as a profession in the State of California
Arthur Yin Fan, Ziyi Fan​
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2014, 12 (3): 182-186.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60016-9
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Cited: Baidu(8)
Effects of fraction from Phyllanthus urinaria on thrombosis and coagulation system in animals
Zhi-qiang Shen, Peng Chen, Li Duan, Zhe-jun Dong, Zhi-he Chen, Ji-kai Liu
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (2): 106-110.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040209
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Objective: To investigate the effects of PUW (a fraction containing 60% corilagin from a Chinese herbal plant Phyllanthus urinaria ) on thrombosis and coagulation system. Methods: Myers's method was used to evaluate the protection of intravenously administered PUW against the male mouse sudden death caused by injection of 75 mg/kg arachidonic acid in the tail vein; Charlton's method was modified to observe antithrombotic effect of PUW in rat electrically stimulated carotid artery thrombosis model; and the model of venous thrombosis was produced to investigate the antithrombotic effect of PUW. Rosette assay was used to observe the effect of PUW on platelet-neutrophil adhesion. The effects of PUW were monitored on euglobulin lysis time (ELT), prothrombin time (PT), kaolin partial thromboplastin time (KPTT), and bleeding time (BT) in rats, according to the methods of Kowalski, HUANG Zheng-Liang, and GU Yue-Fang, et al, respectively. Results: The results showed that PUW administered intravenously significantly decreased the mouse mortality, prolonged the occlusion time of rat carotid arteries, and reduced the wet and dry thrombus weight of the inferior vena cava, respectively. PUW markedly inhibited the binding of activated platelets to neutrophils, obtaining 39.7 mg/L of the medium inhibitory concentration. Intravenously administered PUW significantly shortened ELT, prolonged KPTT while had no influence on PT; PUW increased BT in rat tail tips but the BT caused by PUW was much shorter than that by aspirin or urokinase. Conclusion: It is suggested that PUW has the potential of antithrombosis due to its inhibition of platelet-neutrophil adhesion. PUW shows the tendency to bleeding, however, it could not cause serious bleeding side effect as compared with aspirin or urokinase.

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Treatment of temporomandibular joint disorder by traditional Chinese medicine
Guo-heng Li
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2003, 1 (4): 258-258.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20030407
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Correlations of clinical symptoms and treatment efficacy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with Chinese herbal drugs or Western medicine
Ai-ping Lv, Yi-ting He, Qing-lin Zha, Xiao-ping Yan, Li Su, Yue-jin Song, Sheng-ping Zeng, Wei Liu, Xing-hua Feng, Xian Qian, Wan-hua Zhu
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2005, 3 (6): 432-437.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20050604
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Objective

To evaluate the correlations between clinical symptoms and treatment efficacy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods

Four hundred and thirteen patients were included in the clinical trial from 9 clinical centers. They were randomly divided into Western medicine-treated group with 204 cases and Chinese herbal drug-treated group with 209 cases. Eighteen clinical symptoms were evaluated before and after treatment. The Western medicine therapy included voltaren extended release tablets, methotrexate and sulfasalazine. The Chinese herbal drug therapy included glucosidorum Tripterygii totorum tablets and Yishen Juanbi Tablets combined with treatment based on syndrome differentiation. The American college of rheumatology 20 (ACR20) was used as efficacy evaluation criteria.

Results

In the Chinese herbal drug-treated group, clinical symptoms such as arthralgia and tenderness of joints were positively correlated with the efficacy after 12-week treatment, while frequent urination at night was negatively correlated. In the same group, tenderness of joints and fever were positively correlated with the efficacy after 24-week treatment, while deep-colored and turbid urine was negatively correlated. In the Western medicine-treated group, tenderness of joints and thirst were positively correlated with the efficacy after 12-week treatment, while vertigo was negatively correlated. And in the same group, tenderness of joints was positively correlated with the efficacy after 24-week treatment, while heaviness of limbs was negatively correlated to the efficacy. The statistical results showed that the treatment efficacy was improved when the correlated symptoms were included in the indications.

Conclusion

The treatment efficacy of RA is correlated with some symptoms, so further studies should proceed on these correlations in order to achieve better treatment outcome.

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Progress in research on pharmaceutics for intranasal medication
Tong Zhang, Lian-ying Xu
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (3): 223-225.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040324
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Effects of kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal medicine on hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotrophic function
Hao Shen, De-pei Cai, Bo-ying Chen
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (1): 53-57.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040120
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Objective: To observe the effects of kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal medicine on the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and the related neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, and to explore the mechanism of the regulative effect of Chinese herbal medicine on the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotrophic function. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats during the period of normal adolescent initiation (160-180 g, 1.5 monthes) were randomly divided into three groups. The control group was fed with normal saline and the two experimental groups were fed with Chinese herbal medicine for nourishing yin to reduce fire (Zi Yin Xie Huo, ZYXH) or nourishing kidney to replenish essence (Yi Shen Tian Jing, YSTJ) respectively. The dosage was 5 ml/d for 30 days by gastric gavage. Integrated optic densities of the GnRH and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in medial preoptic area (MPOA), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and median eminence (ME) of hypothalamus were determined by immunohistochemistry method and image processing. The content of GnRH in homogenate of hypothalamus preoptic area was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The releasing amount of monoamine neurotransmitters from medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) was determined by brain slices incubation and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The releasing amount of GnRH and NPY from POA was determined by push-pull perfusion and RIA, and the releasing amount of monoamine neurotransmitters from this site was determined by HPLC.Results: ZYXH could inhibit the synthesis and secretion of GnRH from periodic and tonic secretory centers of GnRH, while YSTJ could stimulate the synthesis and secretion of GnRH from the both secretory centers of GnRH. ZYXH could inhibit the activity of GnRH neurons via diminishing the releasing of norepinephrine (NE) from tonic secretory center of GnRH, increasing the releasing of dopamine (DA) in periodic secretory center of GnRH and increasing the synthesis and releasing of NPY from the both secretory centers of GnRH, it hence inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotrophic function. YSTJ could stimulate the activity of GnRH neurons via diminishing the synthesis and releasing of NPY from tonic secretory center of GnRH, it hence promoted the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotrophic function.Conclusion: Chinese herbal medicine for tonifying the kidney could modulate hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotrophic function via regulating the synthesis and secretion of GnRH and the related neurotransmitters (NE, DA) and neuropeptides (NPY).

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An overview of medicinal plant resource for decreasing blood glucose
Yun Zhu, Jin-rong Liu, Wei Zhang
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (1): 67-68.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040125
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Methods of English translation for Huangdi Neijing
Chuan-yue Niu
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2005, 3 (2): 160-163.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20050221
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Exploring into the principles of Chinese-English translation of traditional Chinese medicine
Lei Luo
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (3): 239-240.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040329
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Multicenter clinical study about the action of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule against liver fibrosis with chronic hepatitis B
Ping Liu, Yi-yang Hu, Cheng Liu, Lie-ming Xu, Cheng-hai Liu, Ke-wei Sun, De-chang Hu, You-kuan Yin, Xia-qiu Zhou, Mo-bin Wan, Xiong Cai, Zhi-\qing Zhang, Jun Ye, Bao-zhang Tang, Jia He
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2003, 1 (2): 89-98.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20030204
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Objective

To study the efficacy and safety of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule (FZHY Capsule) against liver fibrosis with chronic hepatitis B.


Methods

Multicentric, randomized, double blinded and paralleled control led trial was conducted on patients (aged between 18 and 65) with liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B.Indexes observed: (1) hepatic histological changes and HBV markers were observed at 0 and 24th week during the treatment; serological indexes (HA, LN, P-Ⅲ-P, Ⅳ-C) were determined and B ultrasound examination of spleen and liver was taken at 0, 12th, 24th week; liver function (during the period of follow-up, liver function and serological indexes for liver fibrosis were evaluated) were observed at 0, 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th week; (2) indexes for safety: blood and urine routine tests, renal function and ECG were examined.


Results

(1) Enrollment and demographic data: There was no significant difference between the trial (110 cases) and control group (106 cases) in demographic feature, vital signs, course of illness,history for drug anaphylaxis, history of previous therapy, liver function, serological indexes for liver fibrosis, liver histological examination (99 cases for test group, 96 cases for control group), HBV markers, and renal function, etc. (2) Histological pathological examination: 93 cases of liver histological examination were taken, of these 50 cases for the trial group and 43 cases for control group which turned out to be at S mean value of 2.33 and 2.11 respectively pretreatment according to criteria for liver fibrosis staging. Post-treatment, the trial showed a significant decrease with S value of 1.80 compared to that of pretreatment; however, there was no significant improvement in control group before and after the treatment with S mean value of 2.14. There was significant difference in reversing rate (decrease at least 1 stage according to criteria for liver fibrosis staging) between the trial (52%) and control (23.3%) after liver biopsy. The trial had a rather good effect on improving inflammatory activity and was superior to control group with a marked decrease of mean value of inflammatory activity and score of inflammation (P<0.05). (3) Serological indexes for liver fibrosis: There was a significant decrease in HA, LN, P-Ⅲ-P, Ⅳ-C content in test group after 12 and 24 weeks' treatment compared to that of pretreatment; the differences of HA, LN, P-Ⅲ-P, Ⅳ-C between 12 , 24 weeks' treatment and pretreatment were significantly greater than control group (P<0.01 or 0.05); the effectual was defined as 2 of 4 indexes lowered more than 30% of the baseline, according to this criteria, the trial was 72.7%, while control group 27.4% (P<0.01). (4) Liver function: Obvious improvement of serum Alb, ALT, AST, GGT was seen in 2 groups; compared with control group, marked improvement of GGT and Alb in the trial (P<0.05); the effective rate of serum ALT in the trial group was 72.7%, while control 59.4%. (5) No changes of significant difference between pre- and post-treatment in routine tests for blood and urine, renal function and ECG, etc. There was also no difference in the stable rate of ALT and serological indexes for liver fibrosis between the trial and control group 12 weeks after withdrawal (P<0.05).


Conclusion

Fuzheng Huayu Capsule has good effect on alleviating liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B without any adverse effect and is superior to Heluo Shugan Capsule. Fuzheng Huayu Capsule is a safe and effective medicine for the treatment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B.

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The study of intoxication and toxicity of Fructus Xanthii
Xue-mei Zhang, Zhong-hua Zhang
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2003, 1 (1): 71-74.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20030129
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Fructus Xanthii is commonly used in rhinology, especially used in treatment of chronic rhinitis and sinusitis. But Fructus Xanthii is toxicant, and it maybe result in poisoning when used excessively, without preparation or in inappropriate preparation. This article reviewed all poisoning cases from 1960 to 2000, its toxicology and methods for detoxification.

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Cited: Baidu(16)
Puzzle of hormone replacement therapy and prospect of the role of traditional Chinese medicine in treating postmenopausal syndrome
Ming-dao Chen, Ying Yang
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2003, 1 (1): 9-11.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20030105
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In July 2002, the Women's Heath Initiative (WHI) clinical trial, designed to clarify the risks and benefits of combination hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to the postmenopausal women declared that interim safety review after an average follow-up of 5.2 years found that a combination of estrogen and progestin frequently prescribed to postmenopausal women in USA increased the risk of invasive breast cancer, heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism while reduced bone fractures and colorectal cancer. The overall risks of HRT outweigh the benefits, which provides an opportunity for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) going abroad. A variety of clinical and experimental evidences have showed that TCM exerts quite satisfactory effect on relieving postmenopausal symptoms with little adverse effect, hence a potential role to replace or to improve HRT or to reduce the side effect induced by HRT.

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Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses:The PRISMA statement (Chinese edition)
David Moher, Alessandro Liberati, Jennifer Tetzlaff, Douglas G. Altman, The PRISMA Group
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2009, 7 (9): 889-896.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20090918
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Clinical and experimental studies on polyherbal formulations for diabetes: Current status and future prospective
Ahmad Ghorbani
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2014, 12 (4): 336-345.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60031-5
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Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. There is currently an active search for antidiabetic drugs with greater effectiveness with fewer and less adverse side effects. Although numerous individual herbs have been experimentally or clinically reported to possess antidiabetic effects, considerably less research has been conducted on polyherbal compounds. It is believed that herbal compounds containing multiple plant products have synergistic antidiabetic effects and could enhance the desired actions. Several polyherbal formulations have been studied as therapeutic agents in diabetes management. To describe the current state of research on polyherbal compounds in the treatment of diabetes, an extensive review of literature was undertaken on several major databases. This paper presents what is known about the efficacy of these polyherbal formulations and compare their antidiabetic effects with those of current oral hypoglycemic drugs as reference. The percent decrease in blood glucose, lipids and other biochemical parameters achieved by each product in diabetic animals and patients is reported. Also, the possible mechanisms responsible for hypoglycemic action of polyherbal formulations are discussed.

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Cited: Baidu(33)
Characteristics of English translation of traditional Chinese medicine
Chuan-yue Niu
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (2): 159-160.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040228
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Cited: Baidu(3)
Feasibility for inhibiting tumor metastasis with Chinese herbal medicines as angiogenesis inhibitors
Huan-rong Li, Xiu-rong Li
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2007, 5 (4): 378-382.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20070404
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Anti-angiogenesis is one of the important ways to control tumor growth and metastasis, and searching for anti-angiogenesis herbs targeting tumor angiogenesis has become a hot topic in both basic and clinical research for tumor. Utilizing the traditional Chinese medicine theory, authors of this article discussed the feasibility and research of anti-angiogenesis effect of Chinese medicine on tumor. To develop new drugs inhibiting tumor angiogenesis from the Chinese native herbal medicine has an extremely vital significance in blocking tumor invasion and metastasis, as well as improving the patients' prognosis and their survival rates.

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Cited: Baidu(20)
A brief introduction to Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation Ⅱ
Xie Li-min, Wang Wen-yue
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2012, 10 (2): 160-165.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20120206
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Clinical practice guidelines play an important role in practitioner and patient decisions regarding appropriate clinical health care and in health policy formation. In the guideline development process, inappropriate methodologies and development strategies significantly influence the quality of guidelines; therefore, research and evaluation of guidelines have great significance. The original Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument was published in 2003 by a group of international guideline developers and researchers. AGREE has important significance for the quality guarantee and successful implementation of guidelines, and has extensively achieved endorsement since 2003. In 2009, The AGREE Collaboration has developed the AGREE Ⅱ by refining the original AGREE instrument. At present, the AGREE Ⅱ has already replaced the original AGREE instrument; however, related introduction regarding AGREE Ⅱ has not been found in China. The authors of this article briefly introduce the AGREE Ⅱ, and believe that it will add value to research and evaluation of the guidelines.

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Why to research English translation of traditional Chinese medicine
Chuan-yue Niu
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2003, 1 (3): 239-240.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20030328
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Cited: Baidu(2)
Treatment of diabetes through liver syndrome differentiation
Li Zhao
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (4): 303-305.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040423
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Principles for English translation of the terms in traditional Chinese medicine
Chuan-yue Niu
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (6): 474-476.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040622
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Placebo control and clinical trial of Chinese medicine
J Wu
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2010, 8 (10): 906-910.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20101001
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World Health Organization aims to develop safe, effective and practical traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and other complementary and alternative medicine are being recognized in the whole world nowadays. However, the definite effect of Chinese medicine is still in need of scientific research proof. Placebo control is of equal importance to active control and blank control in clinical trial of TCM. This article briefly reviewed the importance of placebo control and commented on its present situation in clinical trial of TCM. This article also brought up the preliminary proposals of placebo application in TCM clinical trial. We should emphasize scientific placebo preparation and good design of placebo-controlled trial, which are directed by International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. A good clinical trial project will avoid unnecessary wastes and provide safe and effective treatment for people.

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Cited: Baidu(14)
Effect of Kangxianling Decoction on expression of hepatocyte growth factor mRNA and phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 and p38 in renal tissue of rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction
Yue Zhang, Yu-min Liu, Hai-ying Lu, Ke-jian Liu, Jing Li, Li-qun He, Min Lin, Li Zhou
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2007, 5 (6): 656-660.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20070611
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Objective: To study the effect of Kangxianling Decoction (KXLD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mRNA and phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and p38 in renal tissue of rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO).Methods: Eighteen male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operated group, untreated group and KXLD-treated group. A rat model of renal interstitial fibrosis was established by UUO. Rats with UUO were sacrificed after intragastric administration of KXLD for 14 days, and the parameters such as serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and hydroxyproline in the kidney of rats in 3 groups were analyzed. The expression of HGF mRNA in kidney tissue was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expressions of c-Met protein, ERK1/2 protein, p38 protein and the phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and p38 were determined by Western blotting method.Results: The levels of SCr, BUN and hydroxyproline in the untreated group were significantly increased as compared with those in the sham-operated group (P<0.05). The expression of HGF mRNA in the untreated group was significantly down-regulated. The expression of c-Met protein and the phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and p38 in the kidney tissue of rats with UUO in the untreated group were significantly up-regulated. After intervention with KXLD, the phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and p38 were all significantly inhibited except for c-Met expression. The HGF mRNA was increased in KXLD-treated group.Conclusion: KXLD can decrease the level of collagen in the obstructed kidney of rats with UUO and alleviate the renal interstitial fibrosis in rats with UUO through enhancing the HGF mRNA expression and inhibiting the phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and p38.

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Analysis of the osteogenetic effects exerted on mesenchymal stem cell strain C3H10T1/2 by icariin via MAPK signaling pathway in vitro
Xiang-ying Mao , Qin Bian , Zi-yin Shen
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2012, 10 (11): 1272-1278.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20121111
Online available: 15 November 2018

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Objective: To investigate the effects of icariin, an effective extract from traditional Chinese medicine Epimedium pubescens with the function of tonifying kidney, in promoting osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2, and to explore the underlying mechanism.

Methods: After culture with icariin (0, 10 -7, 10 -6, 10 -5, and 10 -4 mol/L) and osteogenic supplement for 26 d in vitro, osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells was detected by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay. The RNA was extracted from cells cultured with 10 -5 mol/L icariin for 2, 8, 24 and 48 hours, and mRNA expressions of p38, p42 and p44 were measured using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Three main proteins of MAPK signaling pathway (p38, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), also named p42/44) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and their phospho-products were examined using Western blotting after icariin treatments of 10, 30, 60 and 120 min.

Rethods: Icariin at a dose of 10 -5 mol/L, when combined with the osteogenic supplement, had the best ability to promote osteogenic differentiation on C3H10T1/2 cells. Based on real-time PCR, the authors found that after two-hour ICA treatment, the gene expression of p38 revealed a significant decline compared with the control group (P<0.01). The levels of p42 and p44 mRNAs were decreased greatly after two-hour ICA treatment, while increased after 48-hour ICA treatment (P<0.05, P<0.01). There was no significant difference at other time points (P>0.05). Phospho-p42 was decreased after 10-minute icariin treatment, while phospho-p38 expression displayed an increase after 10- and 30-minute of treatment with icariin. There was no notable difference in phospho-JNK expression at these four time points.

Conclusion: Icariin promotes differentiation of the mesenchymal stem cells C3H10T1/2 into osteoblasts, and its effect is related to the restraining of ERK expression and activation of p38 expression in the MAPK signaling pathway.

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Cited: Baidu(9)
Successful use of Zhengwu Decoction in treating eye diseases: Case report
Ya-qin Ru
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2005, 3 (1): 61-62.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20050119
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Biological research evaluating the Chinese medical theory of the association of the kidney with the ears
Dong Yang, Shi Jian-rong
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2012, 10 (2): 128-134.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20120202
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“Association of the kidney with the ears” is central to the traditional Chinese medical (TCM) theory of the viscera and their manifestations. Previous studies have shown that thyroxin, aldosterone, calcium and iron might be the material basis of the correlation between the kidney and the ears. Due to restriction in research techniques and methods, there has been no further progress in this research field, whose modern biological mechanisms and scientific connotations have not been explained clearly. In recent years, the progress of biological techniques and research on kidney essence provided promising opportunities for research of the association between the kidney and the ears. This article summarized the study progress of “association of the kidney with the ears” theory and posed some meaningful study thoughts. Presbycusis is a kind of degenerative disease caused by aging, which is one aspect of aging of the human body. Because aging is considered as physiological “kidney deficiency”, presbycusis can be regarded as a model of “kidney deficiency” deafness. In conclusion, investigating the correlation between “kidney deficiency” and presbycusis using biotechnology systems combined with “essence of kidney”, should provide a sound basis for study of the theory of the relationship between the kidney and the ears. This will provide new and valuable information for the modern biological research about the theory of visceral associations in TCM.

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Cited: Baidu(4)
Facts about standardization of herbal medicine: A review
Vandana Garg, Vir Ji Dhar, Anupam Sharma, Rohit Dutt
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2012, 10 (10): 1077-1083.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20121002
Online available: 15 October 2018

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Natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, provide extensive opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. In contrast to modern medicines, herbal medicines are frequently used to treat chronic diseases. Standardization guarantees the content of one or more active constituents and marker compounds. The plant environment and genetic factors could significantly affect the biochemical components of the plant extract, in which plants are still the most abundant and cost-effective resource for drug innovation. Production of botanical drugs requires genetically uniform monocultures of the source plant in fully standardized conditions, to assure the biochemical consistency and to optimize the safety and efficacy of every crop. The present review article illustrates about the methods for standardization of herbal medicine and how the goal of preparing herbal medicines of consistent quality and effects can be achieved.

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Cited: Baidu(19)
Investigation on response of the patient-reported outcome scale of the main-symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated with pulmonary heart disease
Lu-ming Chen, Hui Yu, Da-rong Wu , Xun Hu , Lan Zheng
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2012, 10 (9): 970-974.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20120904
Online available: 15 September 2018

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Objective: To select appropriate descriptors for response of the patient-reported outcome (PRO) scale for the main symptoms of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with pulmonary heart disease.

Methods: A cross-sectional investigation was carried out. Five equidistant ordinal descriptive words in the PRO scale of main symptoms for COPD complicated with pulmonary heart disease were selected. There were 32 alternative words in the questionnaire. Thirty respondents were required to place each descriptive word on a 10-centimeter line according to where they considered each descriptive word should be placed. Then, the line was measured by ruler; average, standard deviation and median were calculated by excel software; the authors finally chose the five equidistant words which accurately reflect the degree of main symptoms.

Results: The five most appropriate descriptive words were selected; they were “never”, “seldom”, “half-partly sometimes”, “very often” and “always”.

Conclusion: These selected decorated words are suitable for the PRO scale for patients with COPD complicated with pulmonary heart disease.

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Cited: Baidu(1)
Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract 50 preconditioning on contents of inflammation-related cytokines in myocardium of rats with ischemia-reperfusion injury
Yi-min Bao, Ai-hua Liu, Zhi-xiong Zhang, Yun Li , Xing-yu Wang
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2010, 8 (4): 373-378.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20100413
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Objective

To investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50) preconditioning on contents of inflammation-related cytokines in rats with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.
Methods

Fifty-eight SD rats were divided into sham-operated group, untreated group, Salviae miltiorrhizae (SM) injection group and low-, medium- and high-dose GBE50 groups. After intragastric administration for 7 d, the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was occluded for 30 min followed by 60-min reperfusion to induce ischemia-reperfuion injury. Myocardium histopathologic change was observed by HE staining under a light microscope; myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in myocardium was measured by colorimetric detection; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 were detected by radioimmunoassay; IL-4 and IL-10 were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results

Compared with untreated group, rats in medium-dose GBE50 group had lower inflammatory reaction and MPO activity (P<0.01). GBE50 also decreased the content of IL-6 (P<0.05, P<0.01) and increased the content of IL-4 in myocardium (P<0.05, P<0.01) as compared with the untreated group. The content of TNF-α in myocardium in the medium-dose GBE50 group was lower and IL-10 was higher than those in the untreated group, but without significant differences.
Conclusion

GBE50 can decrease the content of IL-6 and increase the content of IL-4 in myocardium after ischemia-reperfusion injury. It suggests that GBE50 can regulate the inflammatory reaction after ischemia-reperfusion injury via inhibiting inflammatory cytokines and promoting anti-inflammatory cytokines.

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Effect and mechanism of salvianolic acid B in attenuating elevated portal pressure in a rat model of portal hypertension induced by endothelin-1
ZHOU Yang, GU Jie, XU Lie-ming
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2007, 5 (1): 61-64.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20070112
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Objective: To investigate the effects of salvianolic acid B (SA-B) on portal hypertension induced by endothelin-1 in rats. Methods: Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: ET-1 group, ET-1+SA-B group, ET-1+ETAR blocker (BQ-123) group and ET-1+ETBR blocker (BQ-788) group. The rats of ET-1+SA-B group underwent intragastrical administration of salvianolic acid B for five days before ET-1 injection, while in three other groups' drinking water was given. In BQ-123 group or BQ-788 group, an intravenous injection of BQ-123 or BQ-788 via femoral vein was administered 30 minutes prior to ET-1 injection. Then changes of portal pressure, cervical artery pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously. Results: After ET-1 injection, the portal pressure of all rats in the ET-1 group increased significantly, while slightly in groups that pretreated with SA-B, BQ-123 or BQ-788. Conclusion: SA-B can attenuate the elevated portal pressure induced by ET-1 with effect similar to ETR blocker.

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In-house preparation and characterization of an Ayurvedic bhasma: Praval bhasma
Amrita Mishra, Arun K. Mishra, Om Prakash Tiwari, Shivesh Jha
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2014, 12 (1): 52-58.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60005-4
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Objective

To prepare the Praval bhasma (PB) and to perform its characterization. 

Methods

The preparation was performed strictly as per method prescribed in Ayurvedic formulary of India followed by preliminary tests including Nischandratva, Rekhapurnatvam, Varitaramtavm, Nisvadutvam and Amla pariksha. The physicochemical characterization was done with the use of instrumental techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX). 

Results

The FTIR bands appearing in final product spectra showed a significant shift in infrared vibration frequency as well as intensity when compared with the raw material, which was indicative of formulation of bhasma. The XRD analysis revealed that raw material contained CaCO3 whereas in case of final product of bhasma, CaO was identified. SEM analysis revealed the difference in particles size of bhasma (10-15 μm) and raw material (100-150 μm). The EDAX analysis showed presence of different concentration of carbon in both the samples. 

Conclusion

It may be concluded that modern analytical techniques may be involved to evaluate the quality aspects of PB. The findings of the present research work may be helpful for further formulation and standardization of PB in routine analysis.

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Cited: Baidu(12)
The roles of traditional Chinese medicine in gene therapy
Chang-quan Ling​, Li-na Wang, Yuan Wang​, Yuan-hui Zhang​, Zi-fei Yin, Meng Wang​, Chen Ling​
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2014, 12 (2): 67-75.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60019-4
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The field of gene therapy has been increasingly studied in the last four decades, and its clinical application has become a reality in the last 15 years. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important component of complementary and alternative medicine, has evolved over thousands of years with its own unique system of theories, diagnostics and therapies. TCM is well-known for its various roles in preventing and treating infectious and chronic diseases, and its usage in other modern clinical practice. However, whether TCM can be applied alongside gene therapy is a topic that has not been systematically examined. Here we provide an overview of TCM theories in relation to gene therapy. We believe that TCM theories are congruent with some principles of gene therapy. TCM-derived drugs may also act as gene therapy vehicles, therapeutic genes, synergistic therapeutic treatments, and as co-administrated drugs to reduce side effects. We also discuss in this review some possible approaches to combine TCM and gene therapy.

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Cited: Baidu(83)
Chemotherapy in conjunction with traditional Chinese medicine for survival of elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Protocol for a randomized double-blind controlled trial
Zhi-yi Zhou, Ling Xu, He-gen Li, Jian-hui Tian, Li-jing Jiao, Sheng-fu You, Zhi-fen Han, Yi Jiang, Hui-ru Guo​, Hui Liu​
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2014, 12 (3): 175-181.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60028-5
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Background

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is considered an important complementary therapy with beneficial effects for cancer patients. Elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are a complex patient group with increasing co-morbidity and shrinking physiological reserve, and may derive substantial benefit from the supportive aspects of TCM. Researchers from Shanghai Longhua Hospital found that qi and yin deficiency is a common syndrome in patients with stage III or IV lung cancer. This project was designed to study the combination of single-agent chemotherapy with TCM methods of benefiting qi and yin in elderly patients with advanced NSCLC.

Methods and design

This is a double-blind controlled, multi-center, and prospective study with randomly selected participants from elderly NSCLC patients in China. Seventy-six patients who meet the inclusion criteria will be allocated into two groups, which will receive treatments of 3-week single-agent chemotherapy with TCM or placebo for four cycles. Progression-free survival (PFS) is the primary end point, and the secondary end points are overall survival, objective response rate, time-to-progression, and quality of life (EORTC QLQ-LC43, and TCM syndrome score). Meanwhile, other end points such as toxicity, side effects and safety of the treatments will be assessed.

Discussion

Results from this study may provide evidence on the effectiveness, and parameters for the usage of single-agent chemotherapy combined with or without TCM on PFS of elderly patients with NSCLC.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov. (Identifier: NCT01780181).

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Establishment of Caco-2 cell monolayer model and standard operation procedure for assessing intestinal absorption of chemical components of traditional Chinese medicine
Xiu-wei Yang, Xiao-da Yang, Ying Wang, Lian Ma, Yue Zhang, Xiao-gai Yang, Kui Wang
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2007, 5 (6): 634-641.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20070607
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Objective: To establish Caco-2 (a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line) cell monolayer model and the standard operation procedure for studying and assessing intestinal absorption of chemical components of traditional Chinese medicine.Methods: Caco-2 cell monolayer model was established and evaluated by morphology feature using scanning electron microscope, inverted microscope and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay. Additionally, the model was further tested for the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the apparent permeability (Papp) of standard compounds, i.e. propranolol and atenolol, which were the control substances for high and poor transcellular transport marker, respectively.Results: The integrality of cell monolayer, cell differentiation (reflected by expression of alkaline phosphatase and cell monolayer morphology), and the Papp value of standard compounds in the established Caco-2 cell model were satisfactory. All parameters tested were in good agreement with those reported in the literature.Conclusion: The established Caco-2 cell model can be used to study the intestinal absorption of orally administrated chemical components of traditional Chinese medicine and their absorption mechanism.

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Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of Parkinson's disease
Qiu-juan Zhang, Yun-yun Zhang, Wen-yan Huang
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (1): 75-77.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040128
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Parkinson's disease is a commonly encountered central nervous retrograde affection in elder persons. According to the theories of traditional Chinese medicine, Parkinson's disease is characterized by deficiency in the Ben (root) and excess in the Biao (branch). The Ben (root) is insufficiency of liver and kidney and deficiency of qi and blood; and the Biao (branch) is wind, fire, phlegm and stasis. Good therapeutic effects have been obtained by treatment based on syndrome differentiation, treatment with specific prescriptions and acupuncture. The further study on literatures, standardized criterion of symptoms differentiation and therapeutic effect determination as well as the screening and further research on the effective prescriptions and herbs should be paid more attention, meanwhile, the integration of herbs and acupuncture will be conducive to raise the therapeutic effect.

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Comparison of animal models of hyperlipidemia
Xue-mei Liu, Fu-huo Wu
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2004, 2 (2): 132-134.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20040217
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Objective: To select the proper experimental animal model for research on prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia.Methods: Hyperlipidemia models of mouse, rat, golden hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, pigeon and quail often used in the last ten years were compared.Results: Golden hamster and guinea pig models are similar to human beings in lipid metabolism and have unique superiority in experimental study, while the models of rat, mouse, pigeon and quail have significant difference as compared with human beings. Rabbit is one of the best animal models in studying new drugs for regulating lipid and treating arteriosclerosis.Conclusion: Factors such as the required time, indexes, the duration of making models, and the cost and feeding of animals should be considered in selecting animal models according with the experimental requirements.

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ISSN 2095-4964
CN 31-2083/R

Editors-in-Chief:
Lixing Lao, Virginia, USA
Frequency: 6 issues per year
Publisher: Science Press, China

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