Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2010, Vol. 8 ›› Issue (4): 352-357.doi: 10.3736/jcim20100409

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Differential gene expressions of steroid- and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal gland of rats with different diseases but the same syndromes

 Zhi-qiang Pan, Zhao-qin Fang,Wen-li Lu, Xiao-mei Liu, Dong-yuan Guan, Chao Liang   

  1. School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China
  • Received:2009-12-23 Accepted:2010-03-05 Online:2010-04-20 Published:2010-04-15
  • Contact: Zhao-qin Fang


To study the gene expression characteristics of steroid- and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal gland of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and normal Wistar rats with the same traditional Chinese medicine syndromes.

Sixteen-week-old Wistar rats, SHRs and GK rats were used. By the quantitative four diagnosis and syndrome differentiation methods and GeneChip Mouse Exon 1.0 ST Array, we observed adrenal gland gene expressions in normal Wistar rats, qi deficiency Wistar rats, SHRs with qi deficiency and qi excess, GK rats with qi deficiency and qi excess. Differentially expressed genes of steroid- and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes and their regulatory factors were analyzed.

Thirty-one genes were differentially expressed among all syndromes. Hsd3b6 was down-regulated significantly 6.0-fold in GK rats with qi deficiency syndrome and qi excess syndrome, and Cyp11b2 was up-regulated 1.5 times in GK rats with qi deficiency syndrome. Por, Hsd11b2, and Nr2f6 were up-regulated in all syndromes, and Cyp2c23, Cyp4a3, Cyp4a8 and Cyp2e1 were down-regulated. However, Srd5a1 and Nr4a1 were up-regulated only in GK rats, and Lss was down-regulated only in SHRs. Th was up-regulated 1.5 times in SHRs with qi deficiency syndrome, GK rats with qi deficiency syndrome and GK rats with qi excess syndrome. Ddc was up-regulated 1.5 times in GK rats with qi excess syndrome. Dbh was up-regulated 3.0 times in GK rats with qi deficiency syndrome and qi excess syndrome. However, Comt was down-regulated 1.5 times in GK rats with qi deficiency syndrome and qi excess syndrome, and Mao was up-regulated 1.5 times in SHRs with qi deficiency syndrome and qi excess syndrome.

Some genes associated with steroid- and catecholamine-synthesizing pathways were differentially expressed in SHRs and GK rats, and the differentially expressed genes may be related to the development of traditional Chinese medicine syndromes.

Key words: Hypertension, Diabetes, Syndromes, Steroid hormone, Catecholamines, Adrenal gland, Gene, Gene-chip, rats

Table 1

Gene expression of aldosterone- and cortisol-synthesizing enzymes"

Gene GenBank No. ZQX GQS GQX TQS TQX Biological process
Hsd3b6 NM_017265 0.72 0.78 0.73 0.15 0.13 Steroid hormone biosynthetic process, oxidation reduction
Cyp11b2 NM_012538 1.26 1.17 1.41 1.40 1.76 Regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure

Table 2

Up-regulated genes of steroidogenic enzyme regulation factors among all syndromes"

Gene GenBank No. ZQX GQS GQX TQS TQX Biological process
Por NM_031576 1.54 1.68 1.55 1.82 1.87 Oxidation reduction
Hsd11b2 NM_017081 1.76 2.75 2.50 2.86 2.10 Regulation of blood volume by renal aldosterone
Nr2f6 NM_139113 1.55 1.35 1.62 1.45 1.44 Regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent

Table 3

Down-regulated genes of steroidogenic enzyme regulation factors among all syndromes"

Gene GenBank No. ZQX GQS GQX TQS TQX Biological process
Cyp2c23 NM_031839 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.05 Arachidonic acid metabolic process
Cyp4a3 NM_175760 0.16 0.17 0.15 0.10 0.10 Arachidonic acid metabolic process
Cyp4a8 NM_031605 0.09 0.14 0.05 0.10 0.09 Fatty acid metabolic process
Cyp2e1 NM_031543 0.47 0.26 0.33 0.24 0.30 Xenobiotic metabolic process
Cyp51 NM_012941 0.99 0.60 0.61 0.71 0.62 Cholesterol biosynthetic process
Cyb5r4 NM_133427 0.67 0.74 0.80 0.72 0.71 Generation of precursor metabolites and energy
Nr0b2 NM_057133 0.28 0.63 0.79 0.63 0.89 Negative regulation of transcription
Cyp20a1 NM_199401 0.64 0.75 0.76 0.81 0.76 Oxidation reduction
Cyp4f4 NM_173123 0.92 0.97 0.76 0.49 0.44 Oxidation reduction
Cybb NM_023965 0.94 0.70 0.73 0.59 0.54 Response to nutrient
Cycs NM_012839 0.56 0.74 0.64 0.47 0.71 Transport
Cyb561d2 NM_001007753 0.74 0.89 0.93 0.87 0.56 Transport
Cox5b NM_053586 0.67 0.80 0.77 0.64 0.80
Cox6c NM_019360 0.86 0.83 0.91 0.65 0.70
Cyb5d2 NM_001007671 0.93 0.86 0.85 0.66 0.71

Table 4

Up-regulated or down-regulated genes of steroidogenic enzyme regulation factors among all syndromes"

Gene GenBank No. ZQX GQS GQX TQS TQX Biological process
Nr4a1 NM_024388 1.39 0.71 0.61 1.50 1.21 Regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent
Srd5a1 NM_017070 1.09 0.93 0.94 1.77 1.99 Androgen biosynthetic process
Hsd11b1 NM_017080 0.52 1.03 1.06 1.22 1.24 Steroid biosynthetic process
Lss NM_031049 1.40 0.50 0.62 1.38 0.99 Steroid biosynthetic process
Dbi NM_031853 0.67 1.30 0.95 0.97 0.92 Steroid biosynthetic process, acyl-CoA metabolic process
Cybasc3 NM_001014164 0.76 1.26 1.46 0.63 0.82 Transport, oxidation reduction

Table 5

Gene expression of catecholamine synthetic enzymes"

Gene GenBank No. ZQX GQS GQX TQS TQX Biological process
Th NM_012740 1.40 1.42 1.76 2.99 2.98 Response to hypoxia, synaptic transmission, dopaminergic
Ddc NM_012545 1.02 0.87 0.96 1.68 1.42 Cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process
Dbh NM_013158 1.10 0.87 0.93 3.55 3.06 Cytokine production

Table 6

Gene expression of catecholamine-metabolizing enzymes"

Gene Genebank No. ZQX GQS GQX TQS TQX Biological process
Comt NM_012531 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.60 0.63 Catecholamine metabolic process
Mao NM_013198 0.70 1.63 1.65 1.19 1.06 Neurotransmitter catabolic process
[1] Shen ZY . Research progress and summary of kidney[J]. Zhongguo Yi Yao Xue Bao, 1988,3(2):58-61
沈自尹 . 肾的研究进展与总结[J]. 中国医药学报, 1988,3(2):58-61
[2] Lu WL, Fang ZQ, Pan ZQ, Liu XM, Xiao Y, Yuan YL . The characteristic syndromes of SHR, DOCA-salt and renal hypertensive rats[J]. Sichuan Zhong Yi, 2008,26(11):25-28
卢文丽, 方肇勤, 潘志强, 刘小美, 肖芸, 袁雅丽 . SHR、DOCA-盐及肾性高血压大鼠的证候特征及比较[J]. 四川中医, 2008,26(11):25-28
[3] Liu XM, Fang ZQ, Lu WL, Pan ZQ, Shu S . Research on different syndrome for the same disease and different diseases for the same syndrome of diabetic rats[J]. Zhejiang Zhong Yi Za Zhi, 2008,43(1):10-13
刘小美, 方肇勤, 卢文丽, 潘志强, 舒适 . 糖尿病大鼠的同病异证与异病同证的研究[J]. 浙江中医杂志, 2008,43(1):10-13
[4] Fang ZQ. The experimental methodology of determination of treatment based on pathogenesis obtained through differentiation of symptoms and signs of rats and mice[M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2009: 56-86
方肇勤 . 大鼠/小鼠辨证论治实验方法学[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2009: 56-86
[5] 方肇勤, 潘志强, 卢文丽, 刘小美, 侯俐, 廖明娟 . 大鼠、小鼠常见证候计量化辨证及方法的建立及其评价[J]. 中国中医基础医学杂志, 2007,13(7):502-505
Fang ZQ, Pan ZQ, Lu WL, Liu XM, Hou L, Liao MJ . Establishment and evaluation of metrological methods of syndrome differentiation about common syndrome in rats and mice[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Yi Ji Chu Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2007,13(7):502-505
[6] Miller WL . Steroidogenic enzymes[J]. Endocr Dev, 2008, 13: 1-18
doi: 10.1159/000134751
[7] Bürgi B, Lichtensteiger W, Schlumpf M . Diazepam-binding inhibitor/acyl-CoA-binding protein mRNA and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor mRNA in endocrine and immune tissues after prenatal diazepam exposure of male and female rats[J]. J Endocrinol, 2000,166(1):163-171
doi: 10.1677/joe.0.1660163
[8] Iyer AK, Zhang YH , McCabe ER. Dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1(DAX1)(NR0B1) and small heterodimer partner(SHP)(NR0B2) form homodimers individually, as well as DAX1-SHP heterodimers[J]. Mol Endocrinol, 2006,20(10):2326-2342
doi: 10.1210/me.2005-0383
[9] Bassett MH, Suzuki T, Sasano H, White PC, Rainey WE . The orphan nuclear receptors NURR1 and NGFIB regulate adrenal aldosterone production[J]. Mol Endocrinol, 2004,18(2):279-290
doi: 10.1210/me.2003-0005
[1] Theocharis Koufakis, Kalliopi Kotsa, Nikolaos Papanas. Remission of type 2 diabetes depends on prompt comprehensive lifestyle changes upon diagnosis: How can this “Road to Damascus” experience be supported?. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 288-291.
[2] Yen-Lin Chao, Yi-Ai Rau, Hong-Sheng Shiue, Jiun-Lin Yan, Yuan-Yun Tang, Shao-Wen Yu, Bo-Yan Yeh, Yen-Lung Chen, Tsung-Hsien Yang, Shu-Chen Cheng, Yi-Wen Hsieh, Hsin-Chia Huang, Fu-Kuang Tsai, Yu-Sheng Chen, Geng-Hao Liu. Using a consensus acupoints regimen to explore the relationship between acupuncture sensation and lumbar spinal postoperative analgesia: A retrospective analysis of prospective clinical cooperation. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 329-337.
[3] Zeinab Vafaeipour, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh. Effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its constituent (curcumin) on the metabolic syndrome: An updated review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(3): 193-203.
[4] Yan-jun Lin, Kun-li Jiao, Bo Liu, Lu Fang, Shu Meng. Antiplatelet and myocardial protective effect of shexiang tongxin dropping pill in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 126-134.
[5] Shuai Chen, Jin Hu, Deng-cheng Lu, Hong-yi Liu, Shan-shan Wei. Metabolomic characteristics of spontaneously hypertensive rats under chronic stress and the treatment effect of Danzhi Xiaoyao Powder, a traditional Chinese medicine formula. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(1): 73-82.
[6] Gai Ran, Xi-lin Feng, Yi-lin Xie, Qing-yun Zheng, Peng-peng Guo, Ming Yang, Ying-lu Feng, Chen Ling, Li-qing Zhu, Chen Zhong. The use of miR122 and its target sequence in adeno-associated virus-mediated trichosanthin gene therapy. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(6): 515-525.
[7] Rakhi Chakraborty, Swarnendu Roy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from plants: A review of their diversity, modes of action, prospects, and concerns in the management of diabetes-centric complications. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(6): 478-492.
[8] Yang-hao-tian Wu, Wen-bo He, Yin-yan Gao, Xue-mei Han. Effects of traditional Chinese exercises and general aerobic exercises on older adults with sleep disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(6): 493-502.
[9] Victor Abou Nehmi Filho, Gilson Masahiro Murata, Ruan Carlos Macêdo de Moraes, Gabriely Cristina Alves Lima, Danielle Araujo de Miranda, Katrin Radloff, Raquel Galvão Figuerêdo Costa, Joyce de Cassia Rosa de Jesus, Jéssica Alves De Freitas, Nayara Izabel Viana, Ruan Pimenta, Katia Ramos Moreira Leite, José Pinhata Otoch, Ana Flávia Marçal Pessoa. A novel supplement with yeast β-glucan, prebiotic, minerals and Silybum marianum synergistically modulates metabolic and inflammatory pathways and improves steatosis in obese mice. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(5): 439-450.
[10] Yunita Sari, Akhyarul Anam, Annas Sumeru, Eman Sutrisna. The knowledge, attitude, practice and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine use among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Indonesia. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(4): 347-353.
[11] Reem Abdul-Latif, Ieva Stupans, Ayman Allahham, Benu Adhikari, Thilini Thrimawithana. Natural antioxidants in the management of Parkinson’s disease: review of evidence from cell line and animal models. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(4): 300-310.
[12] Si-qi Tang, Yun-liang Wang, Zi-ye Xie, Yang Zhang, Yi Guo, Kang-li Gao, Tang-you Mao, Chun-e Xie, Jun-xiang Li, Xiao-yan Gao. Serum metabolic profiling of traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(3): 274-281.
[13] Ju-Yeon Park, Young-Won Kwon, Sun-Ah Kim, Sun-Dong Park, Chang-Hyun Kim, Jin-Hee Kim, Ju-Hee Lee. Polyherbal formula SC-E3 inhibits rheumatoid arthritis activity in a mouse model of type-II collagen-induced arthritis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(3): 265-273.
[14] Ya-lei Liu, Zhen-yu Zhou, Min Gao, Guang Ji, Cheng Huang, Sheng-jie Fan. Therapeutic effects of herbal formula Huangqisan on metabolic disorders via SREBF1, SCD1 and AMPK signaling pathway. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 167-176.
[15] Bing-rong Li, Shi-yun Shao, Long Yuan, Ru Jia, Jian Sun, Qing Ji, Hua Sui, Li-hong Zhou, Yi Zhang, Hui Liu, Qi Li, Yan Wang, Bi-meng Zhang. Effects of mild moxibustion on intestinal microbiome and NLRP3 inflammasome in rats with 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 144-157.
Full text



[1] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[2] Hai-feng Wei, Bai-liu Ya, Ling Zhao, Cui-fei Ye, Li Zhang, Lin Li. Evaluation of tongue manifestation of blood stasis syndrome and its relationship with blood rheological disorder in a rat model of transient brain ischemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 73-76
[3] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 76
[4] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 82
[5] Liang-ping Hu, Hui Gao. Discrimination of errors in statistical analysis of medical papers published in the first issue of 2006 in Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 98-106
[6] Yan-bo Zhu , Qi Wang, Cheng-yu Wu, Guo-ming Pang, Jian-xiong Zhao, Shi-lin Shen, Zhong-yuan Xia , Xue Yan . Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1023-1035
[7] Wei Xu, Meng Shi, Jian-gang Liu, Cheng-long Wang . Collagen protein expressions in ischemic myocardium of rats with acute myocardial infarction and effects of qi-tonifying, yin-tonifying and blood-activating herbs and detoxifying and blood-activating herbs. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1041-1047
[8] Tao Wang , Feng Qin. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Xiaoyao Powder on monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats with postpartum depression. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1075-1079
[9] Ying Xu , Chang-chun Zeng , Xiu-yu Cai , Rong-ping Guo , Guang Nie , Ying Jin. Chromaticity and optical spectrum colorimetry of the tongue color in different syndromes of primary hepatic carcinoma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1263-1271
[10] Xiang-ying Mao , Qin Bian , Zi-yin Shen. Analysis of the osteogenetic effects exerted on mesenchymal stem cell strain C3H10T1/2 by icariin via MAPK signaling pathway in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1272-1278