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Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2012, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (4): 430-435.doi: 10.3736/jcim20120412

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Antitumor activity of ethanol extract of Gracilaria edulis (Gmelin) Silva on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice

Meenakshi Sundaram 1, Satyajit Patra2(), Gunasingham Maniarasu3   

  1. 1. Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401, Tamilnadu, India
    2. School of Medicine, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    3. Department of Biotechnology, Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College, Trichy 620005, Tamilnadu, India
  • Received:2011-11-19 Accepted:2012-01-11 Online:2012-04-20 Published:2018-04-15

Objective: To evaluate antitumor activity of Gracilaria edulis in Swiss albino mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC).
Methods: Tumors were induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells. Ethanol extract of Gracilaria edulis (EEGE) was administered to the experimental animals in different doses after 24 h of tumor inoculation. The antitumor effect of the EEGE was evaluated by assessing in vitro cytotoxicity, survival time, biochemical parameters and hepatic enzyme levels.
Results: EEGE increased the life span of EAC-bearing mice compared with that of the model control mice (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EEGE treatment also converted the changes of biochemical parameters and hepatic enzyme levels in the EAC-bearing mice (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EEGE induced inhibition of tumor formation in EAC-bearing mice compared with that of the model control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).
Conclusion: The present study scientifically proved the antitumor activity of marine algae G. edulis and the effect can be correlated with doses.

Key words: Gracilaria, carcinoma, Ehrlich tumor, antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, survival rate, mice


Group n MST (d) Increase in lifespan (%)
Model control 6 17.00±1.31
EEGE 100 mg/kg 6 23.16±1.42* 36.23
EEGE 200 mg/kg 6 26.33±1.21** 54.88
EEGE 300 mg/kg 6 29.51±1.05** 73.52
5-Florouracil 20 mg/kg 6 33.01±2.00** 94.11

Figure 1

Detection of EEGE-induced cell death A: Normal control group (group 1); B: EEGE-treated group. Cells were stained with trypan blue and visualized under a light microscope (×40). EEGE: ethanol extract of Gracilaria edulis."


Group n Glucose (mg/L) Urea (mg/L) Cholesterol (mg/L) Protein (mg/L) Uric acid (mg/L) PCV (mL)
Normal control 6 915.0±18.7 360.0±14.1 930.0±14.1 65.0±1.4 24.8±1.5 0.20 ± 0.86
Model control 6 618.3±17.2△△ 611.6±23.2△△ 1 608.3±17.2△△ 92.0±1.6△△ 44.5±1.9△△ 2.80 ± 0.80△△
EEGE 100 mg/kg 6 715.0±21.4* 555.0±18.7* 1 351.6±11.7* 86.5±1.9* 43.8±2.0* 1.50 ± 0.24*
EEGE 200 mg/kg 6 805.0±16.4** 455.0±16.8** 1 276.6±16.3** 75.0±2.2** 40.7±2.2** 0.90 ± 0.75**
EEGE 300 mg/kg 6 835.0±15.5** 400.0±13.9** 1 078.3±20.4** 67.1±2.3** 31.2±2.8** 0.30 ± 0.66**
5-Florouracil 20 mg/kg 6 860.0±14.1** 405.0±20.1** 1 005.0±18.7** 70.5±0.1** 27.0±1.6** 0.20 ± 0.90**


Normal control 6 35.83±1.17 57.33±1.63 96.50±1.40 310.83±1.47
Model control 6 101.50±1.87△△ 157.50±1.88△△ 162.50±1.87△△ 501.67±2.16△△
EEGE 100 mg/kg 6 96.00±1.98* 127.50±1.97* 145.00±1.41* 449.00±2.61**
EEGE 200 mg/kg 6 64.50±1.90** 91.50±1.23** 129.33±2.12** 364.50±2.43**
EEGE 300 mg/kg 6 52.16±1.33** 65.17±1.94** 107.83±1.47** 322.50±1.87**
5-Florouracil 20 mg/kg 6 41.16±1.47** 60.50±1.87** 92.00±1.53** 317.17±2.32**
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