Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2012, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (4): 430-435.doi: 10.3736/jcim20120412

Previous Articles     Next Articles

Antitumor activity of ethanol extract of Gracilaria edulis (Gmelin) Silva on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice

Meenakshi Sundaram 1, Satyajit Patra2(), Gunasingham Maniarasu3   

  1. 1. Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401, Tamilnadu, India
    2. School of Medicine, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    3. Department of Biotechnology, Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College, Trichy 620005, Tamilnadu, India
  • Received:2011-11-19 Accepted:2012-01-11 Online:2012-04-20 Published:2018-04-15

Objective: To evaluate antitumor activity of Gracilaria edulis in Swiss albino mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC).
Methods: Tumors were induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells. Ethanol extract of Gracilaria edulis (EEGE) was administered to the experimental animals in different doses after 24 h of tumor inoculation. The antitumor effect of the EEGE was evaluated by assessing in vitro cytotoxicity, survival time, biochemical parameters and hepatic enzyme levels.
Results: EEGE increased the life span of EAC-bearing mice compared with that of the model control mice (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EEGE treatment also converted the changes of biochemical parameters and hepatic enzyme levels in the EAC-bearing mice (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EEGE induced inhibition of tumor formation in EAC-bearing mice compared with that of the model control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).
Conclusion: The present study scientifically proved the antitumor activity of marine algae G. edulis and the effect can be correlated with doses.

Key words: Gracilaria, carcinoma, Ehrlich tumor, antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, survival rate, mice

"

Group n MST (d) Increase in lifespan (%)
Model control 6 17.00±1.31
EEGE 100 mg/kg 6 23.16±1.42* 36.23
EEGE 200 mg/kg 6 26.33±1.21** 54.88
EEGE 300 mg/kg 6 29.51±1.05** 73.52
5-Florouracil 20 mg/kg 6 33.01±2.00** 94.11

Figure 1

Detection of EEGE-induced cell death A: Normal control group (group 1); B: EEGE-treated group. Cells were stained with trypan blue and visualized under a light microscope (×40). EEGE: ethanol extract of Gracilaria edulis."

"

Group n Glucose (mg/L) Urea (mg/L) Cholesterol (mg/L) Protein (mg/L) Uric acid (mg/L) PCV (mL)
Normal control 6 915.0±18.7 360.0±14.1 930.0±14.1 65.0±1.4 24.8±1.5 0.20 ± 0.86
Model control 6 618.3±17.2△△ 611.6±23.2△△ 1 608.3±17.2△△ 92.0±1.6△△ 44.5±1.9△△ 2.80 ± 0.80△△
EEGE 100 mg/kg 6 715.0±21.4* 555.0±18.7* 1 351.6±11.7* 86.5±1.9* 43.8±2.0* 1.50 ± 0.24*
EEGE 200 mg/kg 6 805.0±16.4** 455.0±16.8** 1 276.6±16.3** 75.0±2.2** 40.7±2.2** 0.90 ± 0.75**
EEGE 300 mg/kg 6 835.0±15.5** 400.0±13.9** 1 078.3±20.4** 67.1±2.3** 31.2±2.8** 0.30 ± 0.66**
5-Florouracil 20 mg/kg 6 860.0±14.1** 405.0±20.1** 1 005.0±18.7** 70.5±0.1** 27.0±1.6** 0.20 ± 0.90**

"

Group n AST ALT ALP LDH
Normal control 6 35.83±1.17 57.33±1.63 96.50±1.40 310.83±1.47
Model control 6 101.50±1.87△△ 157.50±1.88△△ 162.50±1.87△△ 501.67±2.16△△
EEGE 100 mg/kg 6 96.00±1.98* 127.50±1.97* 145.00±1.41* 449.00±2.61**
EEGE 200 mg/kg 6 64.50±1.90** 91.50±1.23** 129.33±2.12** 364.50±2.43**
EEGE 300 mg/kg 6 52.16±1.33** 65.17±1.94** 107.83±1.47** 322.50±1.87**
5-Florouracil 20 mg/kg 6 41.16±1.47** 60.50±1.87** 92.00±1.53** 317.17±2.32**
[1] Garcia M, Jemal A, Ward EM, Center MM, Hao Y, Siegel RL, Thun MJ . Global cancer facts & figures 2007. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society. 2007.
[2] Tongyoo A . Targeted therapy: novel agents against cancer.J Med Assoc Thai. 2010; 93(Suppl 7):S311-S323.
[3] Guarino M, Rubino B, Ballabio G . The role of epithelial- mesenchymal transition in cancer pathology. Pathology. 2007; 39(3) : 305-318.
doi: 10.1080/00313020701329914
[4] Kurkjian C, Kummar S . Advances in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Am J Ther. 2009 ; 16(5):412-420.
doi: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e3181907ed9
[5] Balunas MJ, Su B, Brueggemeier RW, Kinghorn AD . Natural products as aromatase inhibitors. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2008; 8(6):646-682.
doi: 10.2174/187152008785133092
[6] Blunt JW, Copp BR, Munro MH, Northcote PT, Prinsep MR . Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2003; 20(1):1-48.
doi: 10.1039/b207130b
[7] Dholwani KK, Saluja AK, Gupta AR, Shah DR . A review on plant-derived natural products and their analogs with anti-tumor activity. Indian J Pharmacol. 2008; 40(1):49-58.
doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.41038
[8] Wagner H, Bladt S, Zgainski EM . Plant drug analysis: a thin layer chromatography atlas. New York: Springer-Verlag. 1984: 298.
[9] Noaman E, Badr El-Din NK, Bibars MA, Abou Mossallam AA, Ghoneum M . Antioxidant potential by arabinoxylan rice bran, MGN-3/biobran, represents a mechanism for its oncostatic effect against murine solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2008; 268(2) : 348-359.
doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2008.04.012
[10] Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development. Revised draft guidelines 425, OECD Guideline for the testing of chemicals. ( 2001 -12-17) [2011-09-10]. .
[11] Zhivotosky B, Orrenius S . Assessment of apoptosis and necrosis by DNA fragmentation and morphological criteria. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2001; Chapter 18: Unit 18. 3.
[12] Denizot F, Lang R . Rapid colorimetric assay for cell growth and survival. Modifications to the tetrazolium dye procedure giving improved sensitivity and reliability.J Immunol Methods. 1986; 89(2):271-277.
doi: 10.1016/0022-1759(86)90368-6
[13] Sur P, Ganguly DK . Tea plant root extract (TRE) as an antineoplastic agent. Planta Med. 1994; 60(2) : 106-109.
doi: 10.1055/s-2006-959427
[14] Fossati P, Prencipe L, Berti G . Use of 3,5-dichlor〇-2- hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid/ 4-aminophenazone chromogenic system in direct enzymic assay of uric acid in serum and urine. Clin Chem. 1980; 26(2):227-231.
[15] Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ . Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent.J Biol Chem. 1951; 193(1):265-275.
[16] Richardson RW, Setchell KD, Woodman DD . An improved procedure for the estimation of serum cholesterol. Clin ChimActa. 1971; 31(2):403-407.
doi: 10.1016/0009-8981(71)90410-4
[17] Mohun AF , Cook IJ- Simple methods for measuring serum levels of the glutamic-oxalacetic and glutamic-pyruvic transaminases in routine laboratories.J Clin Pathol. 1957; 10(4) : 394-399.
doi: 10.1136/jcp.10.4.394
[18] Devi GK, Manivannan K, Thirumaran G, Rajathi FA, Anantharaman P . In vitro antioxidant activities of selected seaweeds from Southeast coast of India. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011; 4(3):205-211.
doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60070-9
[19] Ganesan P, Kumar CS, Bhaskar N . Antioxidant properties of methanol extract and its solvent fractions obtained from selected Indian red seaweeds. Bioresour Technol. 2008; 99(8):2717-2723.
doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.07.005
[20] Natarajan S, Shanmugiahthevar KP, Kasi PD . Cholinesterase inhibitors from Sargassum and Gracilaria gracilis : seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal areas(Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar). Nat Prod Res. 2009; 23(4):355-369.
doi: 10.1080/14786410802156036
[21] Zhou YH, Ragan MA . Characterization of the polyubiquitin gene in the marine red alga Gracilaria verrucosa. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995; 1261(2):215-222.
doi: 10.1016/0167-4781(95)00006-3
[22] Nakajima K, Yokoyama A, Nakajima Y . Anticancer effects of a tertiary sulfonium compound, dimethylsul- foniopropionate, in green sea algae on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2009; 55(5) : 434-438.
doi: 10.3177/jnsv.55.434
[23] DeCosse JJ, Cennerazzo WJ . Quality-of-life management of patients with colorectal cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 1997; 47(4) : 198-206.
doi: 10.3322/canjclin.47.4.198
[24] Badary OA . Thymoquinone attenuates ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome in rats and enhances its antitumor activity in mice.J Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(2) : 135-142.
doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00242-6
[25] Daoud SS, Fetouh MI, Giovanella BC . Antitumor effect of liposome-incorporated camptothecin in human malignant xenografts. Anticancer Drugs. 1995; 6(1) : 83-93.
doi: 10.1097/00001813-199502000-00010
[26] Huot J, Roy G, Lambert H, Chretien P, Landry J . Increased survival after treatments with anticancer agents of Chinese hamster cells expressing the human Mr 27, 000 heat shock protein. Cancer Res. 1991 ; 51(19) : 5245-5252.
[27] Reinhold HS, van den Berg-Blok AE, van den Berg AP . Dose-effect relationships for glucose-induced tumour acidification and its erythrocyte flux. Eur J Cancer. 1991; 27(9):1151-1154.
doi: 10.1016/0277-5379(91)90314-4
[28] Bartrons R, Caro J . Hypoxia, glucose metabolism and the Warburg 5 s effect. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2007 ; 39(1):223-229.
doi: 10.1007/s10863-007-9080-3
[29] Metwally NS, Ali SA, Mohamed AM, Khaled HM, Ahmed SA . Levels of certain tumor markers as differential factors between bilharzial and non-biharzial bladder cancer among Egyptian patients. Cancer Cell Int. 2011 ; 11(1) : 8.
doi: 10.1186/1475-2867-11-8
[30] Ramadori G, Lenzi M, Dienes HP , Meyer zum Biischenfelde KH. Binding properties of mechanically and enzymatically isolated hepatocytes for IgG and C3. Liver. 1983; 3(6) : 358-368.
[31] Pizzuti GP, Salvatori GC . Some blood parameters of water buffalo in different physiological conditions. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1993; 69(10):649-654.
[32] Chakraborty T , Chatter)ee A, Saralaya MG, Chatter)ee M. Chemopreventive effect of vanadium in a rodent model of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis : reflections in oxidative DNA damage, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence profile and metallothionein expression.J Biol Inorg Chem. 2006; 11(7):855-866.
doi: 10.1007/s00775-006-0128-3
[33] Adeyemi OO, Okpo SO, Okpaka O . The analgesic effect of the methanolic extract of Acanthus montanus .J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 90(1):45-48.
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.021
[1] Yi Ran Hu, San Li Xing, Chuan Chen, Ding Zhu Shen, Jiu Lin Chen. Tiaoxin Recipe, a Chinese herbal formula, inhibits microRNA-34a expression in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 404-409.
[2] Jeremiah Olorunjuwon Olugbami, Robert Damoiseaux, Bryan France, Michael A. Gbadegesin, Adam Z. Stieg, Shivani Sharma, Oyeronke A. Odunola, James K. Gimzewski. Atomic force microscopy correlates antimetastatic potentials of HepG2 cell line with its redox/energy status: Effects of curcumin and Khaya senegalensis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(3): 214-230.
[3] Bhesh Raj Sharma, Dong Wook Kim, Dong Young Rhyu. Korean Chungtaejeon tea extract attenuates weight gain in C57BL/6J-Lep ob/ob mice and regulates adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(1): 56-63.
[4] Shi-li Jiang, Xu-dong Hu, Ping Liu. Immunomodulation and liver protection of Yinchenhao decoction against concanavalin A-induced chronic liver injury in mice. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(4): 262-268.
[5] Xuanbin Wang, Ning Wang, Fan Cheung, Lixing Lao, Charlie Li, Yibin Feng. Chinese medicines for prevention and treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma: Current progress on pharmacological actions and mechanisms. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(3): 142-164.
[6] Elizabeth Abidemi Balogun, Sylvia Orume Malomo, Joseph Oluwatope Adebayo, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Ayodele Olufemi Soladoye, Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Stephen Olubunmi Oguntoye, Abiola Samuel Babatunde, Oluwole Busayo Akinola . In vivo antimalarial activity and toxicological effects of methanolic extract of Cocos nucifera (Dwarf red variety) husk fibre. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(6): 504-511.
[7] Zhi-yi Zhou, Ling Xu, He-gen Li, Jian-hui Tian, Li-jing Jiao, Sheng-fu You, Zhi-fen Han, Yi Jiang, Hui-ru Guo​, Hui Liu​. Chemotherapy in conjunction with traditional Chinese medicine for survival of elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Protocol for a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(3): 175-181.
[8] Md. Asadujjaman, Ahmed Ullah Mishuk, Md. Aslam Hossain, Utpal Kumar Karmakar. Medicinal potential of Passiflora foetida L. plant extracts: Biological and pharmacological activities. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(2): 121-126.
[9] Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Esmail Abbasi, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Mehdi Sheikhi, Mina Lotfizadeh, Parisa Bazahang. Effects of rutin on oxidative stress in mice with kainic acid-induced seizure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(5): 337-342.
[10] Md. Khirul Islam, Imran Mahmud, Sanjib Saha, Asit Baron Sarker, Himangsu Mondal, A.S.M. Monjur-Al-Hossain, Md. Anisuzzman. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Alocasia indica Schott tuber. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(5): 343-351.
[11] Sanjib Saha, Faroque Hossain, Md. Anisuzzman, Md. Khirul Islam. Pharmacological evaluation of Musa seminifera Lour. Fruit. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(4): 253-261.
[12] Sunil A. Nirmal, Jayashri M. Ingale, Shashikant R. Pattan, Sanjay B. Bhawar. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(3): 206-212.
[13] Xiao-feng Zhai, Zhe Chen, Bai Li, Feng Shen, Jia Fan, Wei-ping Zhou, Yun-ke Yang, Jing Xu, Xiao Qin, Le-qun Li, Chang-quan Ling. Traditional herbal medicine in preventing recurrence after resection of small hepatocellular carcinoma: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(2): 90-100.
[14] Lin Wang, Guan-liang Wang, Jia-han Liu, Di Li, De-zeng Zhu, Liang-neng Wu . Effects of ursolic acid in ameliorating insulin resistance in liver of KKAy mice via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(7): 793-799.
[15] Yi-tao Zhao , Xin-guang Zhang , Li Bai , Li-qing Li , Jian-er Yu . Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Pingchuan Formula on airway inflammation, interferon-γ and interleukin-4 in mice with asthma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(7): 807-813.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[3] Xue-mei Liu, Qi-fu Huang, Yun-ling Zhang, Jin-li Lou, Hong-sheng Liu, Hong Zheng. Effects of Tribulus terrestris L. saponion on apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 45-50
[4] Zhi-chun Jin. Problems in establishing clinical guideline for integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 5-8
[5] SUN Ming-yu, ZUO Jian, DUAN Ji-feng, HAN Jun, FAN Shi-ming, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Li-fang, YAO Ming-hui. Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 51-59
[6] Hai-feng Wei, Bai-liu Ya, Ling Zhao, Cui-fei Ye, Li Zhang, Lin Li. Evaluation of tongue manifestation of blood stasis syndrome and its relationship with blood rheological disorder in a rat model of transient brain ischemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 73-76
[7] A-gao Zhou, Yong Zhang, Gang Kui, De-Yun Kong, Hai-liang Ge, Qiu-hua Ren, Jia-rong Dong, Sheng Hong, Xu-ming Mao, Yin Wang, Hui-zheng Zhang, Shu-jun Wang. Influence of traditional Chinese compound recipes with different efficacy on body weight, tumor weight and immune function in H22 cancer-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 77-82
[8] Xin-jun Wang, Ling-ling Wang . A mechanism of endogenous opioid peptides for rapid onset of acupuncture effect in treatment of depression. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1014-1017
[9] Jing-yuan Mao, Chang-xiao Liu, Heng-he Wang, Guang-li Wei , Zhen-peng Zhang, Jie Xing, Wang Xian liang , Ying-fei Bi . Effects of Shenmai Injection on serum concentration and pharmacokinetics of digoxin in dogs with heart failure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1070-1074
[10] Tao Wang , Feng Qin. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Xiaoyao Powder on monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats with postpartum depression. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1075-1079