Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2008, Vol. 6 ›› Issue (6): 591-594.doi: 10.3736/jcim20080609

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Artesunate induces prostate cancer cell line PC-3 differentiation and cell cycle arrest

Xiao-fei Huang, Ding Yuan, Chang-cheng Zhang(), Xiao-peng Zhang   

  1. Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Medical College of China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei Province 443002, China
  • Received:2008-03-27 Online:2008-06-20 Published:2008-06-15
  • Contact: ZHANG Chang-cheng

Objective: To explore the effect of artesunate (ART) on cell differentiation and cell cycle distribution of the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 in vitro.
Methods: PC-3 cells were cultivated with ART from logarithmic growth phase. After 48-hour treatment, the cell cycles were detected by flow cytometry (FCM), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in cell culture supernatant. The change of cellular morphology was observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM).
Results: In comparison with the blank control group, the rate of G0/G1 plus S stages of PC-3 cells was significantly decreased in the high-dose ART group. The PC-3 cell was arrested in G2/M by ART. The rates of G2/M of the high-dose ART group and the medium-dose ART group were obviously higher than those of the blank control group and the cisplatin group (P<0.05). The levels of PSA in the three ART groups were significantly lower than that of the normal control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). In the ART groups, TEM showed that some vacuoles appeared in endochylema, cell polarity was enhanced, cell nucleus leaned to one side of the cell, and microvilli increased on the other side of the cell.
Conclusion: ART can induce PC-3 cell cycle arrest and differentiation in vitro.

Key words: artesunate, prostatic neoplasms, cell differentiation, cell cycle, prostate-specific antigen

CLC Number: 

  • R979.1

Table 1

Distribution of cell cycle of PC-3 cells after 48-hour ART-treatment ($\bar{x}$±s, %)"

Group n G0/G1+S G2/M
Blank control 3 70.12±6.60 23.18±3.10
Cisplatin 3 71.50±7.20 22.55±1.88
Low-dose ART 3 68.55±6.43 25.43±2.55
Medium-dose ART 3 66.93±6.54 26.97±3.12**△△
High-dose ART 3 61.52±5.89* 32.32±2.63*△△

Table 2

Content of PSA in PC-3 cell culture supernatant after 48-hour ART-treatment ($\bar{x}$±s, ng/ml)"

Group n PSA
Blank control 5 0.025 4±0.002 3
Low-dose ART 5 0.022 0±0.002 2*
Medium-dose ART 5 0.013 2±0.000 8**
High-dose ART 5 0.006 4±0.003 5**

Figure 1

Morphological change of PC-3 cells treated by different concentrations of ART after 48 hours (Transmission electron microscopy) A: Blank control group (×3 500); B: Cisplatin group (×25 000); C: Low-dose ART group (×4 000); D: Medium-dose ART group (×4 000); E: High-dose ART group (×4 000)."

[1] Wang JF, Cheng Y, Yu RX . Apoptosis-inducing effect and mechanism of artesunate on leukemia cells[J]. Zhejiang Zhong Yi Xue Yuan Xue Bao, 2005,29(6):55-58
王建峰, 陈燕, 虞荣喜 . 青蒿琥酯诱导白血病细胞凋亡及机理的实验研究[J]. 浙江中医学院学报, 2005,29(6):55-58
[2] Wang Q, Wu LM, Li AY , et al. Experimental studies of antitumor effect of artesunate on liver cancer[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 2001,26(10):707-708
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1001-5302.2001.10.022
王勤, 吴理茂, 李爱媛 , 等. 青蒿琥酯抗肝癌作用的实验研究[J]. 中国中药杂志, 2001,26(10):707-708
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1001-5302.2001.10.022
[3] Nam W, Tak J, Ryu JK , et al. Effects of artemisinin and its derivatives on growth inhibition and apoptosis of oral cancer cells[J]. Head Neck, 2007,29(4):335-340
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0347
[4] Greenlee RT, Murray T, Bolden S , et al. Cancer statistics 2000[J]. Cancer J Clin, 2000,50(1):7-33
doi: 10.3322/canjclin.50.1.7
[5] Gu FL . Epidemiological survey of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer in China[J]. Beijing Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 2000,32(1):30-33
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1671-167X.2000.01.009
顾方六 . 我国良性前列腺增生和前列腺癌发病调查[J]. 北京医科大学学报, 2000,32(1):30-33
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1671-167X.2000.01.009
[6] Yamashita Y, Shimada M, Harimoto N , et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A induces cell-cycle arrest/apoptosis and hepatocyte differentiation in human hepatoma cells[J]. Int J Cancer, 2003,103(5):572-576
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0215
[7] Wu JG . Several clinical application problems of prostate specific antigen[J]. Lin Chuang Jan Yan Za Zhi, 2006,24(1):1-3
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-764X.2006.01.001
武建国 . 前列腺特异抗原的几个临床应用问题[J]. 临床检验杂志, 2006,24(1):1-3
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-764X.2006.01.001
[8] Zhang YQ, Lin F, Liu YF . Clinical effect of Qian Lie Xiao Zheng decoction in treatment of prostate cancer[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Wai Ke Za Zhi, 2006,12(2):83-85
张亚强, 林飞, 刘猷枋 . 前列消癥汤治疗前列腺癌的临床观察[J]. 中国中西医结合外科杂志, 2006,12(2):83-85
[1] Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Fahad Hussain, Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain. Synergistic effects of combined therapy of curcumin and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi for treatment of osteoporosis: cellular and molecular evidence of enhanced bone formation. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(1): 38-45.
[2] Oluwatosin Adaramoye, Bettina Erguen, Olubukola Oyebode, Bianca Nitzsche, Michael Höpfner, Klaus Jung, Anja Rabien. Antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities of root methanol extract of Calliandra portoricensis in human prostate cancer cells. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(3): 185-193.
[3] Di Li, Guan-liang Wang, Meng-ya Shan, Jia-han Liu, Lin Wang, De-zeng Zhu. Effects of ursolic acid on c-Cbl-associated protein expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with insulin resistance. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(8): 886-893.
[4] Zhan gheng, Ju-yong Wang, Qing Wang, Ling Xu, Zhen-ye Xu. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Feiyanning decoction on expressions of nucleosome conformation-regulating factors H3-K56, Rtt109, Asf1 and E2F1 in Lewis-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(4): 448-453.
[5] Bao Tan, Hai-lian Shi, Guang Ji, Jian-qun Xie. Effects of taraxerol and taraxeryl acetate on cell cycle and apoptosis of human gastric epithelial cell line AGS. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2011, 9(6): 638-642.
[6] Cheng Jian, Zhang Xin-min, Shen Zi-yin, Chen Wei-hua, Cai Wai-jiao, Ying Jian, Hu Guo-rang, Liu Run-hong. Immunoregulatory mechanisms of an optimal Chinese herbal monomer compound in mice with allergic rhinitis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2011, 9(12): 1360-1366.
[7] Rui-chen Zhang, Bin Liu, Zhen-xiao Sun, Dong-yan Xu. Effects of extract of Polygonum multiflorum on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human liver cell line L02. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(6): 554-561.
[8] Li-fang Wang, Zhen-ye Xu, Chang-juan Jin, Hui-fang Sha, Zhong-qi Wang, Wei-dong Zhou, Ming Zhang, Ji Wu, Bing Bai. Dual regulation of cell cycles by Shuanghuang Shengbai Granule in Lewis-bearing mice with chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression and its mechanism. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2009, 7(5): 453-457.
[9] Li-fang Wang, Zhen-ye Xu. Research advances in regulation of cell cycle by traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(11): 1190-1193.
[10] YUAN Ding, ZUO Rui, cheng ZHANG Chang. Effects of total saponins of Panax japonicus on human leukemic HL-60 cells. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2007, 5(5): 570-572.
[11] Zhi-qing Cheng, Hong-fei Liu, Juan Zhang, Hang-ping Yao. Th cell differentiation in chronic stage of viral myocarditis in mice and interference of Qingxin-Ⅱ Recipe. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2007, 5(3): 318-321.
[12] Xiao-yan Mu, Ai-guang Zhao. Progress in research of traditional Chinese medicine in inducing differentiation of human hepatoma cells. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2007, 5(1): 92-96.
[13] Yan Xiao, Pin-kang Wei, Jun Li, Jun Shi, Zhi-hong Yu, Hui-ming Lin. Effects of Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil on tumor growth and cell cycle of MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells orthotopically transplanted in nude mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2006, 4(4): 384-387.
[14] Zhi-hong Yu, Pin-kang Wei, Ling Xu, Zhi-feng Qin, Jun Shi, Yan Xiao, Hui-ming Lin. Effects of Jinlongshe Granules on apoptosis of MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells orthotopically transplanted in nude mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2006, 4(3): 275-280.
[15] Jian-xiong Zhao, Wei-dong Cheng, Rui-feng Xu, Yuan-qing Li. Effects of Fuzheng Yiliu Granule-medicated serum on apoptosis of liver cancer cells from mice and its mechanism. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2005, 3(4): 278-281.
Full text



[1] Jin-zhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xin-qing Zhang, Qi Bi, Xin Ma, Zhi-liang Wang, Xiao-bin Li, Shu-li Shen, Lin Li, Zhen-yun Wu, Li-yan Fang, Xiao-dong Zhao, Ying-chun Miao, Peng-wen Wang, Ying Ren, Jun-xiang Yin, Yong-yan Wang, Beijing United Study Group on MCI of the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments. An explanation on "guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol)". Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 15-21
[2] Yi-ting He, Qing-lin Zha, Jian-ping Yu, Yong Tan, Cheng Lu, Ai-ping Lv. Principal factor analysis of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlations with efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 32-36
[3] Jun Cai, Hua Wang, Sheng Zhou, Bin Wu, Hua-rong Song, Zheng-rong Xuan. Effect of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 37-40
[4] Wei Zhang, Xiang-feng Lu, Xiao-mei Zhang, Jian-jun Wu, Liang-duo Jiang. A rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by infusing bleomycin quickly through tracheal intubation. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 60-67
[5] A-gao Zhou, Yong Zhang, Gang Kui, De-Yun Kong, Hai-liang Ge, Qiu-hua Ren, Jia-rong Dong, Sheng Hong, Xu-ming Mao, Yin Wang, Hui-zheng Zhang, Shu-jun Wang. Influence of traditional Chinese compound recipes with different efficacy on body weight, tumor weight and immune function in H22 cancer-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 77-82
[6] Guo-hong Yuan, Xiao-jing Pang, He-chao Ma. Synergic effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in reducing toxicity of cytoxan in tumor-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 83-88
[7] Li Zhou, Hong-xing Zhang, Ling-guang Liu, Wen-jun Wan. Effect of electro-acupuncture at Fenglong (GV 16) on nitric oxide and endothelin in rats with hyperlipidemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 89-92
[8] Jin-zhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xin-qing Zhang, Qi Bi, Xin Ma, Zhi-liang Wang, Xiao-bin Li, Shu-li Shen, Lin Li, Zhen-yun Wu, Li-yan Fang, Xiao-dong Zhao, Ying-chun Miao, Peng-wen Wang, Ying Ren, Jun-xiang Yin, Yong-yan Wang, Beijing United Study Group on MCI of the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments. Guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 9-14
[9] Xin-jun Wang, Ling-ling Wang . A mechanism of endogenous opioid peptides for rapid onset of acupuncture effect in treatment of depression. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1014-1017
[10] Bo Wang , Wei Yan , Li-hui Hou, Xiao-ke Wu. Disorder of Tiangui (kidney essence) and reproductive dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1018-1022