Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2009, Vol. 7 ›› Issue (6): 505-508.doi: 10.3736/jcim20090602

• Editorial • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Evidence-based medicine and individualized health care

Jian-ping Liu   

  1. Center for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2009-04-13 Accepted:2009-04-24 Online:2009-06-20 Published:2009-06-15

In 21st century, clinical medicine moves toward a model of individualized health care. The development of the individualized model is based on the research findings of human genomics project including genotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as the new health care model, that is, biological-psychological-social-environmental-spiritual. It reflects the idea of patient-centered care, and corresponds to the traditional practice of Chinese medicine, which addressed the individualized therapy on the basis of symptom pattern differentiation. However, the era of evidence-based medicine affords new meanings of individualized health care and promotes the research on the practice. The practice based on evidence would happen upon the integration of external research evidence, the expertise and experience of practitioners, and the value and preference of patients, so the decision of health care will be conscientious, explicit and judicious. This assay describes the meanings of individualized health care in different medical contexts, the characteristics of individualized practice in Chinese medicine, and proposals for further research in practice.

Key words: Evidence-based medicine, Clinical practice patterns, Individualized medicine, Syndrome differentiation treatment

[1] Subbiah MT . Nutrigenetics and nutraceuticals: the next wave riding on personalized medicine[J]. Transl Res, 2007,149(2):55-61
doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2006.09.003
[2] Giacomini KM, Krauss RM, Roden DM, Eichelbaum M, Hayden MR, Nakamura Y . When good drugs go bad[J]. Nature, 2007,446(7139):975-977
doi: 10.1038/446975a
[3] Hou MP, Qu HQ, Xiao ZR . Healthy accelerating pattern for individualized application of diabetes medical nutrient treatment[J]. Zhongguo Lin Chuang Kang Fu, 2005,9(39):17-19
侯梅萍, 曲惠卿, 肖筑蓉 . 糖尿病医学营养治疗个体化应用的健康促进模式[J]. 中国临床康复, 2005,9(39):17-19
[4] Li YJ, Zhou XL, Xing YY . Neglecting the argument about the principal therapy, focusing on the personality therapy for hypertension: comprehension for the updated European guide for hypertension therapy[J]. Yi Xue Yu Zhe Xue, 2008,29(1):27-29
栗印军, 周晓龙, 邢芸芸 . 抛开一线治疗的争论, 采取个体化的降压治疗——解读最新欧洲高血压治疗指南[J]. 医学与哲学, 2008,29(1):27-29
[5] Zhong H . The overtreatment of malignant tumor and its countermeasures[J]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Lun Li Xue, 2007,20(1):107-108
钟华 . 恶性肿瘤的过度治疗与避免[J]. 中国医学伦理学, 2007,20(1):107-108
[6] Wang Q . Classification and diagnosis basis of nine basic constitutions in Chinese medicine[J]. Beijing Zhong Yi Yao Da Xue Xue Bao, 2005,28(4):1-8
王琦 . 9种基本中医体质类型的分类及其诊断表述依据[J]. 北京中医药大学学报, 2005,28(4):1-8
[7] Miao Y, Xu H, Gao Z . Study of individualized treatment according to compatibility rule in Shanhan Lun[J]. Beijing Zhong Yi, 2005,24(2):89-90
苗阳, 徐浩, 高铸 . 从《伤寒论》辨证组方看个体化诊疗[J]. 北京中医, 2005,24(2):89-90
[8] Sackett DL, Richardson WS, Rosenburg W .Evidence-based medicine[M].New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1997: 150
[9] Sioud M, Melien O .Treatmentoptions and individualized medicine[J].Methods Mol Biol, 2007, 361: 327-340
[10] Kaklamani V . A genetic signature can predict prognosis and response to therapy in breast cancer: Oncotype DX[J]. Epert Rev Mol Diagn, 2006,6(6):803-809
doi: 10.1586/14737159.6.6.803
[11] Luo YF, Sun YH . On the development of syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Zhong Yi Yao Xin Xi, 2005,22(6):3-4
骆云丰, 孙月华 . 浅谈中医“证”的发展[J]. 中医药信息, 2005,22(6):3-4
[12] Cai DY . Basis for modern study of individualized medicine in traditional Chinese medicine[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Yi Ji Chu Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2006,12(2):143-144
蔡德英 . 中医个体化医疗的现代研究基础[J]. 中国中医基础医学杂志, 2006,12(2):143-144
[13] Abrahams E, Ginsburg GS, Silver M . The personalized medicine coalition: goals and strategies[J]. Am J Pharmacogenomics, 2005,5(6):345-355
doi: 10.2165/00129785-200505060-00002
[1] Arthur de Sá Ferreira, Antonio Guilherme Pacheco. SimTCM: A human patient simulator with application to diagnostic accuracy studies of Chinese medicine. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(1): 9-19.
[2] Si-cheng Wang, Jian-ping Liu, Hui Li, He Yu. Guidelines for evidence-based Chinese medicine clinical pathway report. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(9): 819-823.
[3] Wan-li Gu , Zai-xiang Shi, Yun-xu Yu, Yu-wei Wu, Bao-wei Lu, Ka-kit Hui . Distribution characteristics of syndrome types in essential hypertension. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(9): 842-847.
[4] Ling Xu, Li-jing Jiao, Chun-jie Li. Eight-step method in clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(5): 401-405.
[5] Li Tao, Ying-jie Zhu , Xian-mei Lu , Ying Gu , Ai-guang Zhao , Jian Zheng, Chuan-gang Fu, Jin-kun Yang. Clinical study on survival benefit for elderly patients with resected stage I or E colorectal cancer based on traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation and treatment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(12): 1159-1164.
[6] Jing Li. Thinking on syndrome differentiation treatment and personalized therapy for tumor. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2009, 7(4): 306-308.
[7] Zhao-qin Fang, Zhi-qiang Pan, Wen-li Lu, Xiao-mei Liu, Dong-yuan Guan, Chao Liang. Methodology and purposes of establishing mouse and rat models for syndrome differentiation and treatment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2009, 7(10): 907-.
[8] Chung-wah Cheng, Zhao-xiang Bian, You-ping Li, David Moher, Tai-xiang Wu, Simon Dagenais, Jing Li, Ting-qian Li. Transparently reporting adverse effects of traditional Chinese medicine interventions in randomized controlled trials. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(9): 881-886.
[9] Hong-cai Shang, Bo-li Zhang, You-ping Li. Clinical orientation of post-marketing Chinese patent drugs: an evidence-based practice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(9): 887-890.
[10] Zhao-xiang Bian, David Moher, You-ping Li, Tai-xiang Wu, Simon Dangenais, Chung-wah Cheng, Jing Li, Ting-qian Li. Appropriately selecting and concisely reporting the outcome measures of randomized controlled trials of traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(8): 771-775.
[11] Zhao-xiang Bian, David Moher, You-ping Li, Tai-xiang Wu, Simon Dangenais, Chung-wah Cheng, Jing Li, Ting-qian Li. Precise reporting of traditional Chinese medicine interventions in randomized controlled trials. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(7): 661-667.
[12] Jian-ping Liu. Design, implementation and methodological issues in cohort study. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(4): 331-335.
[13] Li-juan Xiu, Yu-xing Yang, Shan Yu, Da-zhi Sun, Pin-kang Wei. Research of depression in traditional Chinese medicine: review and prospect. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(4): 416-421.
[14] Jian Jiang. Reflections on clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine through treatment of individual cases of urinary tract infection. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(12): 1217-1220.
[15] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4.
Full text



[1] Jun Cai, Hua Wang, Sheng Zhou, Bin Wu, Hua-rong Song, Zheng-rong Xuan. Effect of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 37-40
[2] Zhi-chun Jin. Problems in establishing clinical guideline for integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 5-8
[3] SUN Ming-yu, ZUO Jian, DUAN Ji-feng, HAN Jun, FAN Shi-ming, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Li-fang, YAO Ming-hui. Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 51-59
[4] Min Cheng, Qiong Feng, Shu-wen Qian, Hui Gao, Cui-qing Zhu. Preliminary assay of p-amyloid binding elements in heart-beneficial recipe. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 68-72
[5] Guo-hong Yuan, Xiao-jing Pang, He-chao Ma. Synergic effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in reducing toxicity of cytoxan in tumor-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 83-88
[6] Jin-zhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xin-qing Zhang, Qi Bi, Xin Ma, Zhi-liang Wang, Xiao-bin Li, Shu-li Shen, Lin Li, Zhen-yun Wu, Li-yan Fang, Xiao-dong Zhao, Ying-chun Miao, Peng-wen Wang, Ying Ren, Jun-xiang Yin, Yong-yan Wang, Beijing United Study Group on MCI of the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments. Guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 9-14
[7] Ya-bing Zhou, Jian-er Yu, Jie Wu, Li Bai, Li-li Huo, Xin-guang Zhang, Li-qing Li . Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Bushen Gubiao Recipe on toll-like receptor 4 and CD4 +CD25 +foxp3 +regulatory T cells in mice with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1053-1059
[8] Jing-yuan Mao, Chang-xiao Liu, Heng-he Wang, Guang-li Wei , Zhen-peng Zhang, Jie Xing, Wang Xian liang , Ying-fei Bi . Effects of Shenmai Injection on serum concentration and pharmacokinetics of digoxin in dogs with heart failure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1070-1074
[9] Chan Chen, Yong-mei Meng , Peng Zhang, Juan Wang, Hui-hui Zhao, Shu-zhen Guo , Wei Wang. Diagnosis and treatment rule of traditional Chinese medicine for syndrome factors of chronic congestive heart failure: a study based on Shannon entropy method. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1080-1084
[10] Rui Jin, Bing Zhang. A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property (Part 1). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1198-1205