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Tongue diagnosis: Relationship between sublingual tongue morphology in three tongue protrusion angles and menstrual clinical symptoms
Tim Hideaki Tanaka
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2015, 13 (4): 248-256.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60180-7
Abstract19699)   HTML    PDF      

Objective
The morphological and color characteristics of the tongue sublingual veins (SLVs) can manifest differently within the subjects, depending on the way their tongue is curled upward. This study was conducted in order to investigate the clinical relevancy of tongue SLV diagnosis in relation to menstrual clinical symptoms (pain, clots, heavy, and scanty), using three different inspection procedures (IP1, IP2, and IP3).
Methods
Three-hundred and seventy-seven female patients were asked to stick out their tongues in three specific ways which were intended to create different tongue protrusion angles. The SLV parameters for thickness (TK), length (LE), color (CL), shape (SP), and nodules (ND) were then evaluated.
Results
According to the results of the Wald χ2 test, IP1 provides the best model for pain (R2 = 0.155), IP3 for clots (R2 = 0.437), IP2 for heavy (R2 = 0.268), and scanty (R2 = 0.192). Abnormal SLV diagnostic parameters were most strongly associated with the clinical symptom of clots (R2 = 0.492).
Conclusion
While the study showed the relations between tongue SLV features and menstrual clinical symptoms, as well it showed that IP2 was the best overall predictor for the symptomatic indexes used in this study, and using one particular SLV inspection procedure may not be sufficient. The application of a particular inspection method alone may cause under- or over-estimation of SLV abnormalities.

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Potentized homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and up-regulates expression of arsenic resistance gene in arsenite-exposed bacteria Escherichia coli
De Arnab, Das Durba, Dutta Suman, Chakraborty Debrup, Boujedaini Naoual, Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh Anisur
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2012, 10 (2): 210-227.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20120212
Abstract2449)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (5194KB)(139)      

OBJECTIVE: To examine if potentized homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C (Ars Alb 30C) can reduce sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in Escherichia coli.
METHODS: E. coli were exposed to low arsenite insult after they grew up to log phase in standard Luria-Bertani medium. E. coli were treated with 1 or 2 mmol/L sodium arsenite alone (control), or Ars Alb 30C was added to the medium of a subset of sodium arsenite-treated bacteria (drug-treated), or homeopathically agitated alcohol was added to the medium containing a subset of sodium arsenite-treated bacteria (placebo-treated). A sub-set of untreated E. coli served as the negative control. Glucose uptake, specific activities of hexokinase, lipid peroxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, intra- and extra-cellular sodium arsenite content, cell growth, cell membrane potential, DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and free glutathione content and expressions of arsB and ptsG gene in normal control, sodium arsenite-treated, drug-treated and placebo-treated E. coli were analyzed. Treatments were blinded and randomized.
RESULTS: In sodium arsenite-treated E. coli, glucose uptake, intracellular ROS, LPO and DNA damage increased along with decrease in the specific activities of hexokinase, SOD and catalase, intracellular ATP and free glutathione contents and cell membrane potential and growth, and there were increases in expression levels of arsB gene and ptsG gene. Ars Alb 30C administration reduced arsenic toxicity in E. coli by inhibiting generation of ROS and increasing tolerance to arsenite toxicity and cell growth.
CONCLUSION: Ars Alb 30C ameliorated arsenic toxicity and DNA damage, validating efficacy of ultra-highly diluted remedies used in homeopathy.

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Understanding hypothyroidism in Unani medicine
Md. Anzar Alam, Mohd Aleemuddin Quamri, Ghulamuddin Sofi, Barkati Md.Tarique
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2019, 17 (6): 387-391.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.05.006
Accepted: 28 April 2019
Online available: 23 May 2019

Abstract2068)   HTML    PDF      
Hypothyroidism (Qillat-e-Ifraz-e-Darqiyya) is a condition where the thyroid gland is underactive and unable to produce enough thyroid hormone. The description of hypothyroidism as a disease is not directly found in Unani texts. However, the signs and symptom of hypothyroidism resemble the clinical manifestation associated with Su-e-Mizaj Barid Maddi (derangement in cold temperament), such as plethora (Imtila), excessive salivation (Kasrat-e-Luabe-e-Dahan), tiredness (Aa’yan), loss of appetite (Zoaf-e-Ishteha), excessive sleeping (Kasrat-e-Naum) and cold skin (Baroodat-e-Jildia). These signs and symptoms are the result of an excess in abnormal phlegm (Ghair Tabayi Balgham) in the body. This review article identifies the observations from Unani literature that describe derangement in cold temperament and relate them to the clinical presentation of primary hypothyroidism in conventional medicine. We also discuss management of these symptoms in Unani medicine.
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Efficacy of equine-assisted psychotherapy in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder
L. Elisabeth Burton, Fares Qeadan, Mark R. Burge
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2019, 17 (1): 14-19.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.11.001
Online available: 16 November 2018

Abstract1718)   HTML    PDF      
Background
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common and debilitating disorder among war veterans. Although complementary and alternative therapies are gaining acceptance in the treatment of PTSD, the efficacy of animal-based therapies in this disorder is unknown. The goal of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is to improve the social, emotional, and/or cognitive functions of individuals with PTSD.
Objective
This study aims to explore the effects of EAP on PTSD symptoms. We hypothesized that veterans with PTSD who participate in a standardized EAP program for 1 h per week for 6?weeks would experience decreased PTSD symptoms and would demonstrate increased resilience as compared with individuals who do not receive EAP intervention.
Design, setting, participants and interventions
We conducted a sequentially assigned, two-arm parallel group trial comparing 6?weeks of EAP with standard, previously established, ongoing PTSD therapy. Therapy was conducted at a community EAP facility in conjunction with an academic University Hospital. Twenty adult veterans with symptomatic PTSD completed the study. Ten adult veterans with previously diagnosed PTSD were assigned to EAP and received directed interaction with trained horses for one hour a week in groups of 3 or 4 individuals, while also continuing their previously established therapies. A certified therapist supervised the sessions, and a professional horse handler was also present. Results were compared with those from 10 adult veterans who only received their standard previously established PTSD care as prescribed by their provider.
Main outcome measures
Changes in salivary cortisol, scores for the PTSD Check List-Military Version (PCL-M) and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) after 6?weeks of study were measured.
Results
Of the 20 enrolled patients, 10 served in Afghanistan, 5 served in Iraq, and 3 served in Vietnam. Subjects were (47?±?14)?years old, were predominantly male, and had a body mass index of (29?±?7)?kg/m2. They had (9.2?±?6.1)?years of military service and carried 66%?±?37% service-connected disability. PCL-M scores declined significantly in both groups and CD-RISC scores increased significantly in the EAP group. There was no difference between the groups with respect to the magnitude of change.
Conclusion
As compared to the control group, a 6-week EAP program did not produce a statistically significant difference with respect to PCL-M and CD-RISC scores, or salivary cortisol. However, our results suggest that EAP may work as well as standard therapy with respect to these parameters. This study supports further inquiry into EAP as a potentially efficacious alternative for veterans suffering from PTSD.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT #03039361.
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Effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for treating functional constipation: An overview of systematic reviews
Jun-peng Yao, Li-ping Chen, Xian-jun Xiao, Ting-hui Hou, Si-yuan Zhou, Ming-min Xu, Kai Wang, Yu-jun Hou, Lin Zhang, Ying Li
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2022, 20 (1): 13-25.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2021.11.001
Online available: 16 November 2021

Abstract1591)   HTML    PDF      

Background

Functional constipation (FC) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. Dissatisfaction with medications prescribed to treat FC may lead patients to seek alternative treatments. Numerous systematic reviews (SRs) examining the use of acupuncture to treat FC have reported inconsistent results, and the quality of these studies has not been fully evaluated.

Objective

In this overview, we evaluated and summarized clinical evidence on the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for treating FC and evaluated the quality and bias of the SRs we reviewed.

Search strategy

The search strategy was structured by medical subject headings and search terms such as “acupuncture therapy” and “functional constipation.” Electronic searches were conducted in eight databases from their inception to September 2020.

Inclusion criteria

SRs that investigated the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for managing FC were included.

Data extraction and analysis

Two authors independently extracted information and appraised the methodology, reporting accuracy, quality of evidence, and risk of bias using the following critical appraisal tools: (1) A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2); (2) Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews (ROBIS); (3) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses for Acupuncture (PRISMA-A); and (4) the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). A κ index was used to score the level of agreement between the 2 reviewers.

Results

Thirteen SRs that examined the clinical utility of acupuncture for treating FC were identified. Using the AMSTAR 2 tool, we rated 92.3% (12/13) of the SRs as “critically low” confidence and one study as “low” confidence. Using the ROBIS criteria, 38.5% (5/13) of the SRs were considered to have “low risk” of bias. Based on PRISMA-A, 76.9% (10/13) of the SRs had over 70% compliance with reporting standards. The inter-rater agreement was good for AMSTAR 2, ROBIS, and PRISMA-A. Using the GRADE tool, we classified 22.5% (9/40) of the measured outcomes as “moderate” quality, 57.5% (23/40) as “low” quality, and 20.0% (8/40) as “very low” quality. The inter-rater agreement was moderate when using GRADE. Descriptive analyses indicated that acupuncture was more efficacious than sham acupuncture for improving weekly complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs) and for raising the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) score. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to anti-constipation drugs for improving weekly spontaneous bowel movements, the total effective rate, and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life score. Although ten SRs mentioned the occurrence of adverse events, serious adverse events were not associated with acupuncture treatment.

Conclusion

Acupuncture may be more efficacious than sham acupuncture for improving CSBMs and BSFS scores and may be superior to anti-constipation drugs for improving bowel movement frequency, as well as quality of life. Limitations to current studies and inconsistent evidence suggest a need for more rigorous and methodologically sound SRs to draw definitive conclusions.

Systematic review registration

PROSPERO CRD42020189173.

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Effectiveness of breathing exercises during the second stage of labor on labor pain and duration: A randomized controlled trial
Hilal Yuksel, Yasemin Cayir, Zahide Kosan, Kenan Tastan
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2017, 15 (6): 456-461.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60368-6
Abstract1552)   HTML    PDF      

Background

 Some research exists on the effect of non-pharmacological approaches for labor pain relief. However, there is limited information about effectiveness of breathing exercises in pregnant women to reduce maternal pain during labor.

Objective

To determine whether breathing exercises for pregnant women during the second stage of labor have beneficial effects on maternal pain, duration of labor, and the first-minute Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity and Respiration (APGAR) scores.

Design, Setting, Participants and Interventions

This randomized clinical trial involved 250 pregnant women, who were randomly divided into two groups: intervention group (IG; n = 125) and control group (CG; n = 125). IG received one session breathing exercise training and performed breathing exercises during the second stage of labor versus the CG that did not receive any breathing exercise training.

Main Outcome Measures

The effects of breathing exercises on maternal pain were determined by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), duration of the second stage of labor, and the first-minute APGAR scores.

Results: The mean age of the participants was (23.2 ± 4.2) (range: 18 to 42) years. Both IG and CG had similar baseline characteristics in terms of age, education level, occupation, and smoking (P > 0.05). The mean VAS scores of IG and CG were (88.2 ± 6.3) and (90.5 ± 7.0), respectively (P < 0.001). The duration of the second stage of labor was (369.6 ± 92.0) s for IG and (440.7 ± 142.5) s for CG (P < 0.001). The mean first-minute APGAR scores were (8.84 ± 0.50) for IG and (8.73 ± 0.89) for CG (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

Based on this study, breathing exercises with deep inhalation and exhalation in pregnant women are effective in reducing the perception of labor pain and shortening the duration of the second stage of delivery. Therefore, we recommend breathing exercises as an effective modality for labor pain management and shortening the duration of labor.

Trial Registration

This study is registered on the website of ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) with the number of NCT03066973.

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Traditional Chinese medicine is a resource for drug discovery against 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)
Chang-quan Ling
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2020, 18 (2): 87-88.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2020.02.004
Accepted: 13 February 2020
Online available: 14 February 2020

Abstract1520)   HTML    PDF      
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History of cupping (Hijama): A narrative review of literature
Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, Gazzaffi Ibrahim Ali, Tamer Shaban Abushanab, Ahmed Tawfik El-Olemy, Meshari Saleh Alqaed, Ibrahim S. El-Subai, Abdullah M.N. Al-Bedah
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2017, 15 (3): 172-181.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60339-X
Abstract1427)   HTML    PDF      
Cupping (Hijama in Arabic) is an ancient, holistic method for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Though the exact origin of cupping therapy is a matter of controversy, its use has been documented in early Egyptian and Chinese medical practices. Diverse human civilizations have contributed to the historical development and continuation of cupping therapy. This narrative review describes the history of cupping, historical definitions, cupping instruments and uses of cupping therapy. Electronic searches of relevant databases (PubMed, Google Scholar and OvidSP) were conducted using keywords and Boolean operators. Manual searches and references of published articles and books were also conducted. A number of articles (N = 625) were retained for extensive review, and finally 83 articles were included in this paper. The historical descriptions of cupping therapy were found in ancient human civilizations of the Eastern and Western world. There were inconsistent data concerning the origin of cupping, definitions, instruments, procedures, definite advancements and research in Hijama over centuries. Cupping therapy fell out of favor in 17th and mid-18th centuries but recovered popularity in modern medicine. Currently, cupping therapy is used for health promotion, prophylaxis and treatment of a variety of diseases around the world. Cupping therapy with a good safety profile has a checkered history and is a well-recognized traditional method for managing medical conditions. Currently, the scope of cupping therapy is expanding, and a growing body of research is providing additional evidence-based data for the further advancement of cupping therapy in the treatment of a variety of diseases.
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Safe acupuncture and dry needling during pregnancy: New Zealand physiotherapists’ opinion and practice
Jillian Marie McDowell, Susan Heather Kohut, Debra Betts
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2019, 17 (1): 30-37.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.11.006
Online available: 28 November 2018

Abstract1422)   HTML    PDF      
Objective
Acupuncture guidelines have advised caution when treating women during pregnancy, because historical “forbidden” acupuncture points are believed to stimulate miscarriage or early labor. Despite recent research demonstrating that acupuncture is a useful and safe treatment tool for pregnancy-related low-back pain (LBP) and pelvic girdle pain (PGP), it is postulated that fear of miscarriage and subsequent blame by association, restricts its provision. More recently, an increase in dry needling (DN) courses for physiotherapists has potentiated the rapid growth in DN practice in New Zealand (NZ). Many dry needlers do not consider DN to be a form of acupuncture; it is unknown if they have similar safety concerns.
Methods
NZ registered physiotherapists practicing acupuncture and/or DN were invited to participate in an electronic survey to examine their practice and level of understanding in regard to safe needling during pregnancy.
Results
Of 124 respondents, only 60 (48%) would needle pregnant women, with a further 66% of those still expressing safety concerns. NZ physiotherapists practicing DN only, were more likely to needle areas related to “forbidden” points in all trimesters. However, overall, NZ physiotherapists were less likely to needle “forbidden” points than their UK peers.
Conclusion
Conflicting literature and a “fear of blame” influences NZ physiotherapists’ decisions to offer needling (both acupuncture and DN) during pregnancy. Further training in this field is recommended to ensure safe practice and adequate provision of acupuncture treatment options for pregnant women suffering musculoskeletal pain, such as LBP and PGP. Further research, particularly into DN, for women during pregnancy, is warranted.
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Effects of transdermal magnesium chloride on quality of life for patients with fibromyalgia: A feasibility study
Deborah J. Engen, Samantha J. McAllister, Mary O. Whipple, Stephen S. Cha, Liza J. Dion, Ann Vincent, Brent A. Bauer, Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2015, 13 (5): 306-313.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60195-9
Abstract1421)   HTML    PDF      

Background
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by chronic pain, fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbances. Its primary cause is unclear. Several studies have reported decreased intracellular magnesium levels in patients with fibromyalgia and have found negative correlation between magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms.
Objective
To gather preliminary data on whether transdermal magnesium can improve quality of life for women who have fibromyalgia.
Design, setting, participants and interventions
This is a patient questionnaires and survey in a fibromyalgia clinic at a tertiary medical center. Forty female patients with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia were enrolled. Each participant was provided a spray bottle containing a transdermal magnesium chloride solution and asked to apply 4 sprays per limb twice daily for 4 weeks. Participants were asked to complete the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, SF-36v2 Health Survey, and a quality-of-life analog scale at baseline, week 2, and week 4.
Main outcome measure
Questionnaire and survey scores, evaluated through intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses.
Results
Twenty-four patients completed the study (mean [SD] age, 57.2 [7.6] years; white, 95%; mean body mass index, 31.3 kg/m2). With intention-to-treat analysis, Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire subscale and total scores were significantly improved at week 2 and week 4 (total score, P = 0.001). Per-protocol analysis results were similar: all subscales of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire were significantly improved at week 2 and week 4 (total score, P = 0.001).
Conclusion
This pilot study suggests that transdermal magnesium chloride applied on upper and lower limbs may be beneficial to patients with fibromyalgia.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov. ldentifier NCT01968772.

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Cited: Baidu(6)
Relationships between constitutional types of traditional Chinese medicine and hypertension
Yan-bo Zhu, Qi Wang, Qi-wei Deng, Jing Cai, Xiao-hong Song, Xue Yan
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2010, 8 (1): 40-45.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20100108
Abstract1390)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (1122KB)(167)      

Objective

To investigate the relationships between constitutional types of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and hypertension so as to provide epidemiological evidence for the theory of correlation between constitution and disease.
Methods

A cross-sectional survey of TCM constitution data from a population of 7 782 from Beijng and 8 provinces of China (Jiangsu, Anhui, Gansu, Qinghai, Fujian, Jilin, Jiangxi, and Henan) was made in the study. The survey of TCM constitutions was performed by standardized TCM Constitution Questionnaire. Discriminatory analysis was used to judge the individual constitutional types including normal constitution, and qi deficiency, yang deficiency, yin deficiency, phlegm-dampness, damp-heat, blood stasis, qi stagnation and special constitutions. A multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the significantly influential constitutional factors of hypertension.
Results

After controlling several factors like gender, age, marital status, occupation, and educational background, three TCM constitutional factors according to different degrees of relative risks were entered into the multiple stepwise logistic regression model. The three factors were phlegm-dampness, yin deficiency and qi deficiency constitutions, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 2.00 [1.58, 2.55], 1.66 [1.33, 2.08] and 1.37 [1.13, 1.66] respectively. The main constitutional influential factors of hypertension in male patients were phlegm-dampness and yin deficiency constitutions, with OR and 95% CI of 1.61 [1.22, 2.14] and 1.60 [1.17, 2.19]. Phlegm-dampness, yin deficiency and qi deficiency constitutions were the main constitutional influential factors of hypertension in female patients. The OR and 95% CI were 2.80 [1.79, 4.39], 1.55 [1.13, 2.14] and 1.39[1.05, 1.84] respectively. Phlegm-dampness constitution had more influence on hypertension in female patients than other constitution types.
Conclusion

Phlegm-dampness, yin deficiency, and qi deficiency constitutions are the main influential factors of hypertension. Hypertensive patients with different gender have different constitutional influential factors.

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Cited: Baidu(69)
Use of ginger versus stretching exercises for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: A randomized controlled trial
Marjan Ahmad Shirvani, Narges Motahari-Tabari, Abbas Alipour
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2017, 15 (4): 295-301.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60348-0
Abstract1379)   HTML    PDF      

Background

Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecologic problem. In some cases, non-medical treatments are considered to be more effective, with fewer side effects. Ginger and exercise are alternative treatments for dysmenorrhea, but in the present study they were not combined.

Objective

In this study, the effects of ginger and exercise on primary dysmenorrhea were compared.

Design, Setting, Participants and Interventions

This randomized controlled trial was performed in Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Two groups of female students were recruited by simple random allocation. In each group, 61 students with moderate to severe primary dysmenorrhea with regular menstrual cycles and without a history of regular exercise were assessed. The ginger group received 250 mg ginger capsules from the onset of menstruation. In the exercise group, belly and pelvic stretching exercises were performed for 10 min, 3 times per week.

Main Outcome Measures

Intensity of pain was assessed according to a visual analogue scale after the first and the second month.

Results

Exercise was significantly more effective than ginger for pain relief (31.57 ± 16.03 vs 38.19 ± 20.47, P = 0.02), severity of dysmenorrhea (63.9% vs 44.3% mild dysmenorrhea, P = 0.02) and decrease in menstrual duration (6.08 ± 1.22 vs 6.67 ± 1.24, P = 0.006), in the second cycle.

Conclusion

Stretching exercises, as a safe and low-cost treatment, are more effective than ginger for pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea.

Trial registration

The trial was registered in www.IRCT.ir with No. 201203118822N2.

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Phytochemistry and pharmacology of ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium and Alpinia purpurata: A review
Wei Chiang Chan Eric, Kuin Wong Siu
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2015, 13 (6): 368-379.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60208-4
Abstract1379)   HTML    PDF      

In this review, the phytochemistry and pharmacology of two ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium (butterfly ginger) and Alpinia purpurata (red ginger), are updated, and their botany and uses are described. Flowers of H. coronarium are large, showy, white, yellow or white with a yellow centre and highly fragrant. Inflorescences of A. purpurata are erect spikes with attractive red or pink bracts. Phytochemical investigations on the rhizomes of H. coronarium generated research interest globally. This resulted in the isolation of 53 labdane-type diterpenes, with little work done on the leaves and flowers. Pharmacological properties of H. coronariumincluded antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, chemopreventive, anti-allergic, larvicidal, anthelminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-urolithiatic, anti-angiogenic, neuro-pharmacological, fibrinogenolytic, coagulant and hepatoprotective activities. On the contrary, little is known on the phytochemistry of A. purpurata with pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, larvicidal, cytotoxic and vasodilator activities reported in the leaves and rhizomes. There is much disparity in terms of research effort within and between these two ornamental gingers.

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Cited: Baidu(9)
Facts about standardization of herbal medicine: A review
Vandana Garg, Vir Ji Dhar, Anupam Sharma, Rohit Dutt
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2012, 10 (10): 1077-1083.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20121002
Online available: 15 October 2018

Abstract1379)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (1381KB)(688)      

Natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, provide extensive opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. In contrast to modern medicines, herbal medicines are frequently used to treat chronic diseases. Standardization guarantees the content of one or more active constituents and marker compounds. The plant environment and genetic factors could significantly affect the biochemical components of the plant extract, in which plants are still the most abundant and cost-effective resource for drug innovation. Production of botanical drugs requires genetically uniform monocultures of the source plant in fully standardized conditions, to assure the biochemical consistency and to optimize the safety and efficacy of every crop. The present review article illustrates about the methods for standardization of herbal medicine and how the goal of preparing herbal medicines of consistent quality and effects can be achieved.

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Cited: Baidu(19)
Perception of patients,physiotherapists and traditional Chinese medicine practitioners towards manual physiotherapy and Tuina (Chinese manipulative therapy) in Australia: A qualitative research
Edwin Yong Miao
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2011, 9 (7): 737-745.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20110707
Abstract1368)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (1719KB)(58)      

Objective: The aim of this study is to gain insight and understanding of the perception of Australian patients toward manual therapies. The study also tries to increase our understanding of manual techniques used by manual therapists.
Methods: This is qualitative field research emphasising the sociological perspective, to interpret health services recipients’ meanings in specific social settings. An unstructured interview is the major study design. The interview study method was conducted jointly with clinical observational techniques. A total of 30 subjects who met the selection criteria were selected. Finally 19 patient participants and 5 practitioner participants entered the study.
Results: Most participants in the research got to know physiotherapy through media and referral from general practitioners. After having gained some experience of manual physiotherapy, patients were expecting a fresh approach from Tuina (Chinese manipulative therapy). Although 94% of patient participants were satisfied with Tuina treatment, most of them could not distinguish differences in technique between Tuina and manual physiotherapy. Some patients consider Tuina as a more costly choice. Most practitioners preferred to use stronger pressure-based methods on trigger points while those who had received formal training in Tuina were in favour of much gentler techniques.
Conclusion: Manual physiotherapy is the first-line choice for many Australian patients. Tuina, as a relatively new method, is often considered as the last-resort treatment due to lack of proper private health insurance coverage. However, most patient participants preferred gentler manual methods, such as Tuina, compared with strong force-based approaches. This study stressed patients’ feelings and needs, which may have an impact on clinical outcomes. This study asserts some possible ways to enhance patient care that would include providing relevant education as part of manual therapy courses, encouraging continual development of the therapists and encouraging patient participation in the treatment process.

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In-house preparation and characterization of an Ayurvedic bhasma: Praval bhasma
Amrita Mishra, Arun K. Mishra, Om Prakash Tiwari, Shivesh Jha
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2014, 12 (1): 52-58.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60005-4
Abstract1360)   HTML    PDF(pc) (2057KB)(341)      

Objective

To prepare the Praval bhasma (PB) and to perform its characterization. 

Methods

The preparation was performed strictly as per method prescribed in Ayurvedic formulary of India followed by preliminary tests including Nischandratva, Rekhapurnatvam, Varitaramtavm, Nisvadutvam and Amla pariksha. The physicochemical characterization was done with the use of instrumental techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX). 

Results

The FTIR bands appearing in final product spectra showed a significant shift in infrared vibration frequency as well as intensity when compared with the raw material, which was indicative of formulation of bhasma. The XRD analysis revealed that raw material contained CaCO3 whereas in case of final product of bhasma, CaO was identified. SEM analysis revealed the difference in particles size of bhasma (10-15 μm) and raw material (100-150 μm). The EDAX analysis showed presence of different concentration of carbon in both the samples. 

Conclusion

It may be concluded that modern analytical techniques may be involved to evaluate the quality aspects of PB. The findings of the present research work may be helpful for further formulation and standardization of PB in routine analysis.

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Antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativaThuja orientalis and Psidium guajava leaf extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Shohini Chakraborty, Nashra Afaq, Neelam Singh, Sukanta Majumdar
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2018, 16 (5): 350-357.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.07.005
Online available: 29 July 2018

Abstract1339)   HTML    PDF      
Objective
This study examined the antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa, Thuja orientalis and Psidium guajava against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and used a standardized purification protocol to determine the presence and abundance of bioactive compounds in the leaf extracts.


Methods

In vitro antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic extracts of C. sativa, T. orientalis and P. guajava were tested against MRSA. The presence of bioactive molecules in these three leaves was evaluated using biochemical assays and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC).


Results

Resistance to methicillin, penicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin was observed in each of the clinical and nonclinical MRSA isolates. However, they were still vulnerable to vancomycin. Used individually, the 50% extract of each plant leaf inhibited MRSA growth. A profound synergism was observed when C. sativa was used in combination with T. orientalis (1:1) and when P. guajava was used in combination with T. orientalis (1:1). This was shown by larger zones of inhibition. This synergism was probably due to the combined inhibitory effect of phenolics present in the leaf extracts (i.e., quercetin and gallic acid) and catechin, as detected by HPTLC.


Conclusion

The leaf extracts of C. sativa, T. orientalis and P. guajava had potential for the control of both hospital- and community-acquired MRSA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect was enhanced when extracts were used in combination.

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Burnout in the emergency department: Randomized controlled trial of an attention-based training program
Pádraic J.Dunne, Julie Lynch, Lucia Prihodova, Caoimhe O'Leary, Atiyeh Ghoreyshi, Sharee A. Basdeo, Donal J.Cox, Rachel Breen, Ali Sheikhi, Áine Carroll, Cathal Walsh, Geraldine McMahon, Barry White
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2019, 17 (3): 173-180.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.03.009
Online available: 29 March 2019

Abstract1330)   HTML    PDF      
Background
Burnout (encompassing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment) in healthcare professionals is a major issue worldwide. Emergency medicine physicians are particularly affected, potentially impacting on quality of care and attrition from the specialty.
Objective
The aim of this study was to apply an attention-based training (ABT) program to reduce burnout among emergency multidisciplinary team (MDT) members from a large urban hospital.
Design, setting, participants and interventions
Emergency MDT members were randomized to either a no-treatment control or an intervention group. Intervention group participants engaged in a four session (4?h/session) ABT program over 7?weeks with a practice target of 20?min twice-daily. Practice adherence was measured using a smart phone application together with a wearable Charge 2 device.
Main outcome measures
The primary outcome was a change in burnout, comprising emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal achievement. The secondary outcomes were changes in other psychological and biometric parameters.
Results
The ABT program resulted in a significant reduction (P?<?0.05; T1 [one week before intervention] vs T3 [follow-up at two months after intervention]) in burnout, specifically, emotional exhaustion, with an effect size (probability of superiority) of 59%. Similar reductions were observed for stress (P?<?0.05) and anxiety (P?<?0.05). Furthermore, ABT group participants demonstrated significant improvements in heart rate variability, resting heart rate, sleep as well as an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression.
Conclusion
This study describes a positive impact of ABT on emergency department staff burnout compared to a no-treatment control group.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02887300.
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Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia
Nisha Panth, Keshav Raj Paudel, Rajendra Karki
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2016, 14 (5): 359-373.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60274-1
Abstract1323)   HTML    PDF      
Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientific attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profile, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of the J. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identification of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as well as screening various solvent extracts or fractions of J. regia in several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientific investigations of J. regia.
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Spinal manipulation therapy: Is it all about the brain? A current review of the neurophysiological effects of manipulation
Giles Gyer, Jimmy Michael, James Inklebarger, Jaya Shanker Tedla
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2019, 17 (5): 328-337.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.05.004
Accepted: 28 April 2019
Online available: 06 June 2019

Abstract1320)   HTML    PDF      
Spinal manipulation has been an effective intervention for the management of various musculoskeletal disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the pain modulatory effects of spinal manipulation remain elusive. Although both biomechanical and neurophysiological phenomena have been thought to play a role in the observed clinical effects of spinal manipulation, a growing number of recent studies have indicated peripheral, spinal and supraspinal mechanisms of manipulation and suggested that the improved clinical outcomes are largely of neurophysiological origin. In this article, we reviewed the relevance of various neurophysiological theories with respect to the findings of mechanistic studies that demonstrated neural responses following spinal manipulation. This article also discussed whether these neural responses are associated with the possible neurophysiological mechanisms of spinal manipulation. The body of literature reviewed herein suggested some clear neurophysiological changes following spinal manipulation, which include neural plastic changes, alteration in motor neuron excitability, increase in cortical drive and many more. However, the clinical relevance of these changes in relation to the mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of spinal manipulation is still unclear. In addition, there were some major methodological flaws in many of the reviewed studies. Future mechanistic studies should have an appropriate study design and methodology and should plan for a long-term follow-up in order to determine the clinical significance of the neural responses evoked following spinal manipulation.
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A review of traditional use, phytoconstituents and biological activities of Himalayan yew, Taxus wallichiana
Hitender Sharma, Munish Garg
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2015, 13 (2): 80-90.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60161-3
Abstract1319)   HTML    PDF      

Plants synthesize certain phytoconstituents for their protection, which, because they are not of primary need, are known as secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites of plants, have often been found to have medicinal uses for human beings. One such gymnosperm having secondary metabolites of medicinal potential for humans is Taxus wallichiana (Himalayan yew). Besides being the source of taxol, this plant has been investigated for its essential oil, diterpenoids, lignans, steroids, sterols and biflavonoids. Traditionally, it is used to treat disorders of the digestive, respiratory, nervous and skeletal systems. Although pharmacologically underexplored, it has been used for antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, analgesic, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. The present review compiles traditional uses, phytochemical constituents (specifically the secondary metabolites) pharmacological activities and the toxicity of T. wallichiana.

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Cited: Baidu(8)
Clinical critical qualitative evaluation of the selected randomized controlled trials in current acupuncture researches for low back pain
Yong Miao Edwin
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2010, 8 (12): 1133-1146.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20101205
Abstract1317)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (2266KB)(83)      

Background

Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reviews concluded that acupuncture is not an effective treatment for low back pain (LBP) and there is no difference between real acupuncture and sham acupuncture in the treatment of LBP.

Objective

This study aims to evaluate the most recently published RCTs and reviews from the clinical protocol, which is used by professional acupuncturists.Data sources and synthesis: English-language studies were identified through searches of The Cochrane Library, PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE, limited to those published between January 2007 and January 2010. Eighteen trials studying conditions related to LBP conditions treated by acupuncture or acupuncture as one of the co-interventions were eligible.Study appraisal methods: A critical clinical qualitative evaluation is the core methodology of this study. The study design employs daily used clinical skills and knowledge with supplementary statistical concepts to evaluate the quality and reliability of the selected RCTs and reviews. Five evaluation criteria were established for the assessment of the selected RCTs and reviews. By implementing the evaluation criteria, which are similar to the inclusion and exclusion criteria used in RCTs, the weaknesses, limitations or errors of RCTs and reviews can be identified, despite the strength of internal validity produced by statistical calculations.

Results

Various terms are used when describing LBP conditions. However, 16 RCTs or 88% of the trials did not establish a medical diagnosis. No trials had objective measurements as a clinical standard for assessing outcomes. Furthermore, significant variation existed due to the numerous treatment methods or therapists used in the RCTs included in the study. Various co-interventions were used in 10 or 55% of the trials, among them, 6 or 33% of the trials used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) or analgesics. Due to the lack of diagnostic status, the accuracy of the external validity was put into question. No logistic regression models were used in any of the selected RCTs and reviews to resolve the degree of heterogeneity.

Conclusion

All selected RCTs either partially met the evaluation criteria or did not fulfill the evaluation criteria while being compared. The major problem existing in all RCTs was the lack of accurate medical diagnosis and a lack of objective measurements to judge the clinical outcomes, which in turn, created incorrect eligibility criteria, improper matches and inaccuracies in data recording before entry into statistical calculations. As a consequence of the subjective nature of measurements, conclusions of RCTs and RCT-based reviews were biased due to overgeneralized or cross-generalized estimations, which infer that alternative explanations cannot be excluded. In addition, the range of variables created in the treatment procedure was difficult to control or estimate, in turn, threatening the reliability of RCTs’ estimations. For these reasons, creating appropriate diagnostic criteria before randomization and constructing a related objective outcome measurement, which are more relevant to clinical practice, should be considered in future RCTs and systematic review studies.

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CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials (Chinese version)
David Moher, Sally Hopewell, Kenneth F Schulz, Victor Montori, Peter C Gtzsche, P J Devereaux, Diana Elbourne, Matthias Egger, Douglas G Altman
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2010, 8 (8): 701-741.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20100801
Abstract1305)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (10228KB)(102)      

Overwhelming evidence shows the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal. Without transparent reporting, readers cannot judge the reliability and validity of trial findings nor extract information for systematic reviews. Recent methodological analyses indicate that inadequate reporting and design are associated with biased estimates of treatment effects. Such systematic error is seriously damaging to RCTs, which are considered the gold standard for evaluating interventions because of their ability to minimise or avoid bias.
A group of scientists and editors developed the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to improve the quality of reporting of RCTs. It was first published in 1996 and updated in 2001. The statement consists of a checklist and flow diagram that authors can use for reporting an RCT. Many leading medical journals and major international editorial groups have endorsed the CONSORT statement. The statement facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of RCTs.
During the 2001 CONSORT revision, it became clear that explanation and elaboration of the principles underlying the CONSORT statement would help investigators and others to write or appraise trial reports. A CONSORT explanation and elaboration article was published in 2001 alongside the 2001 version of the CONSORT statement.
After an expert meeting in January 2007, the CONSORT statement has been further revised and is published as the CONSORT 2010 Statement. This update improves the wording and clarity of the previous checklist and incorporates recommendations related to topics that have only recently received recognition, such as selective outcome reporting bias.
This explanatory and elaboration document — intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the CONSORT statement — has also been extensively revised. It presents the meaning and rationale for each new and updated checklist item providing examples of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies. Several examples of flow diagrams are included.
The CONSORT 2010 Statement, this revised explanatory and elaboration document, and the associated website (www.consort-statement.org) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of randomised trials.

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Kaempferia parviflora ethanol extract improves self-assessed sexual health in men: A pilot study
Richard A. Stein, Kira Schmid, Jowell Bolivar, Andrew G. Swick, Steven V. Joyal, Steven P. Hirsh
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2018, 16 (4): 249-254.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.05.005
Online available: 26 May 2018

Abstract1293)   HTML    PDF      
Background
Sexual health positively correlates with overall wellbeing. Existing therapeutics to enhance male sexual health are limited by factors that include responsiveness, adherence and adverse effects. As the population ages, safe and effective interventions that preserve male sexual function are needed. Published research suggests that various preparations of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant in the Zingiberaceae (ginger) family, support cardiovascular health and may ameliorate erectile function.


Objective

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of KaempMaxTM, an ethanol extract of the K. parviflora rhizome, on erectile function in healthy middle-aged and older men.


Design, setting, participants and interventions

We conducted an open-label, one-arm study on 14 generally healthy males aged 50–68?years with self-reported mild erectile dysfunction, who were not using prescription treatments. Participants took 100?mg KaempMaxTM daily for 30?days.


Main outcome measures

Evaluations were conducted at baseline and on the final study assessment. Primary efficacy analyses included the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF); secondary efficacy analyses included the Global Assessment Question about erectile function.


Results

Thirteen participants completed the 30-day study. Supplementation with KaempMaxTM resulted in statistically significant improvements in erectile function, intercourse satisfaction and total scores on the IIEF questionnaire. KaempMaxTM was well tolerated and exhibited an excellent safety profile.


Conclusion

Our results suggest that KaempMaxTM may improve erectile function in healthy middle-aged and older men. While the effects were not as pronounced as what might be seen with prescription medication, most participants found them satisfactory. Additional, longer and placebo-controlled clinical trials will be needed.


Trial registration

Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT03389867.

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Curculigo orchioides: The black gold with numerous health benefits
Nagendra Singh Chauhan, Vikas Sharma, Mayank Thakur, Vinod Kumar Dixit
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2010, 8 (7): 613-623.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20100703
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Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (family Amarylladaceae) is an endangered rasayana herb which is popularly known as “Kali Musli”. The plant is native to India, and holds a special position as a potent adaptogen and aphrodisiac in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is an important ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations and is considered to have aphrodisiac, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. Various chemical constituents like mucilage, phenolic glycosides, saponins and aliphatic compounds from the plant have been reported. The plant is also considered as an important component of various herbal preparations of the Chinese and Kampo medicine. The present review is an attempt to enumerate various biologically tested activities and evaluation of different phytochemicals present in this important medicinal plant.

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A comparison of Kneipp hydrotherapy with conventional physiotherapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis: A pilot trial
Martin Schencking, Stefan Wilm, Marcus Redaelli
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2013, 11 (1): 17-25.   DOI: 10.3736/jintegrmed2013004
Abstract1290)   HTML    PDF      

Background

An increasingly aging population implies an increasing prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) of hip or knee. It has been ascertained that unspecific hydrotherapy of OA according to Sebastian Kneipp not only improves the range of mobility but also reduces pain significantly and increases the quality of life of the patients affected. 


Objective

The main aim of this pilot study was to determine the effects of hydrotherapy in comparison to conventional physiotherapy, and to analyze the feasibility of the study design under clinical circumstances.


Design, Setting, Participants and interventions

The study design is a prospective randomized controlled three-arm clinical pilot trial, carried out at a specialist clinic for integrative medicine. Thirty patients diagnosed with symptomatic OA of hip or knee and radiologic findings were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups and a control group: hydrotherapy (group 1), physiotherapy (group 2), and both physiotherapy and hydrotherapy (group 3, control group) of the affected joint.


Main Outcome Measures

Primary outcome: pain intensity of the affected joint in the course of inpatient treatment; secondary outcome: health-related quality of life, joint-specific pain and mobility in the course of the study. 


Results

Concerning the main outcome, intervention group 1 showed most beneficial effects in the course of inpatient treatment, followed by groups 3 and 2, and also the indirect flexion ability of hip or knee together with the general patient mobility through the “timed up and go” test were mainly improved within group 1 followed by groups 3 and 2. 


Conclusion

The results of this pilot study demonstrate beneficial effects of hydrotherapy. The study design is feasible. For statistically significant evidence and a robust conclusion of efficacy of Kneipp’s hydrotherapy, a larger sample size is necessary.


Trial Registration Number

NCT 00950326.

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Analysis of spontaneous adverse drug reactions to echinacea, valerian, black cohosh and ginkgo in Australia from 2000 to 2015
Claire L. Hoban, Roger W. Byard, Ian F. Musgrave
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2019, 17 (5): 338-343.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.04.007
Accepted: 29 March 2019
Online available: 30 April 2019

Abstract1279)      PDF      
Objective
Assessing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a proven method to estimate the safety of medicines. The ADRs to herbal medicines in Australia (and by inference, the safety of herbal medicines in Australia) remain unknown. This study examines spontaneous ADR cases to four of the most popular herbs in Australia from 2000 to 2015: echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba).

Methods
ADRs of echinacea, valerian, black cohosh and ginkgo reported to the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) between 2000 and 2015 were obtained from the TGA database. Data were collated and analysed according to age, sex, severity, type of ADR and body system affected. Statistics were calculated using GraphPad Prism software.

Results
Most ADRs were mild or moderate. However, every herbal medicine was associated with life-threatening ADRs. In each life-threatening case, the herbal medicine was taken concomitantly with prescription medications. Black cohosh was associated with a significant number of severe ADRs (30.3% of the total), with 39.4% of these ADRs being associated with abnormal hepatic function, hepatitis or hepatotoxicity.

Conclusion
This study highlights the lack of public awareness with regard to herb–drug interactions, since most of the severe ADRs involved a herb–drug interaction.
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Medicinal properties of Angelica archangelica root extract: Cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells and its protective effects against in vivo tumor development
Carlos R. Oliveira, Daniel G. Spindola, Daniel M. Garcia, Adolfo Erustes, Alexandre Bechara, Caroline Palmeira-dos-Santos, Soraya S. Smaili, Gustavo J.S. Pereira, André Hinsberger, Ezequiel P. Viriato, Maria Cristina Marcucci, Alexandra C.H.F. Sawaya, Samantha L. Tomaz, Elaine G. Rodrigues, Claudia Bincoletto
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2019, 17 (2): 132-140.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.02.001
Online available: 08 February 2019

Abstract1276)   HTML    PDF      
Objective
Although Angelica archangelica is a medicinal and aromatic plant with a long history of use for both medicinal and food purposes, there are no studies regarding the antineoplastic activity of its root. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and antitumor effects of the crude extract of A. archangelica root (CEAA) on breast cancer.
Methods
The cytotoxicity of CEAA against breast adenocarcinoma cells (4T1 and MCF-7) was evaluated by a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological and biochemical changes were detected by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V/PI staining. Cytosolic calcium mobilization was evaluated in cells staining with FURA-4NW. Immunoblotting was used to determine the effect of CEAA on anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax, respectively). The 4T1 cell-challenged mice were used for in vivo assay.
Results
Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, angelicin, a constituent of the roots and leaves of A. archangelica, was found to be the major constituent of the CEAA evaluated in this study (73?μg/mL). The CEAA was cytotoxic for both breast cancer cell lines studied but not for human fibroblasts. Treatment of 4T1 cells with the CEAA increased Bax protein levels accompanied by decreased Bcl-2 expression, in the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and cytosolic calcium mobilization, suggesting mitochondrial involvement in breast cancer cell death induced by the CEAA in this cell line. No changes on the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were observed in CEAA-treated MCF7 cells. Gavage administration of the CEAA (500?mg/kg) to 4T1 cell-challenged mice significantly decreased tumor growth when compared with untreated animals.
Conclusion
Altogether, our data show the antitumor potential of the CEAA against breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Further research is necessary to better elucidate the pharmacological application of the CEAA in breast cancer therapy.
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Efficacy and safety of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.) in non-erosive reflux disease: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial
Shahnaz Karkon Varnosfaderani, Fataneh Hashem-Dabaghian, Gholamreza Amin, Mahbubeh Bozorgi, Ghazaleh Heydarirad, Esmaeil Nazem, Mohsen Nasiri Toosi, Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2018, 16 (2): 126-131.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.02.008
Online available: 13 February 2018

Abstract1269)   HTML    PDF      
Background
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints. GERD, caused by the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus, leads to troublesome symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation. It is classified into two types: erosive esophagitis, characterized by visible esophageal mucosa erosion in endoscopy, and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). GERD is a chronic and recurrent disease that impairs the quality of life and imposes socioeconomic and therapeutic burdens to both patients and society.


Objective

Due to the failure of the conventional treatments for GERD and to the traditional use of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.), in addition to beneficial effects shown in recent studies, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of Amla tablet for improvement of symptoms of patients with NERD.


Design, setting, participants and interventions

We designed a double-arm, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sixty-eight patients who had classic symptoms of GERD (heartburn, regurgitation and epigastralgia) for at least three months before the start of the trial were randomized in two parallel groups. Patients in the Amla group received two 500?mg Amla tablets twice a day, after meals, for 4?weeks. In the control group, patients received placebo tablets similar to the Amla prescription.


Main outcome measures

The patients were visited at baseline, and at the end of the 2nd and 4th weeks of intervention; their symptoms were measured on a frequency and severity scale for the symptoms of NERD, according to the quality of life in reflux-associated disease questionnaire.


Results

Frequencies of heartburn and regurgitation in both groups of the study were significantly reduced after intervention (P?<?0.001). Repeated measures logistic regression analysis showed that, in the Amla group, there was a more significant reduction in regurgitation frequency, heartburn frequency, regurgitation severity and heartburn severity during the study period, compared with the placebo group (P?<?0.001).


Conclusion

This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial demonstrated that Amla could reduce frequencies of heartburn and regurgitation and improve heartburn and regurgitation severity in patients with NERD.


Trial registration

Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT2016061428469N1.
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Green synthesis, characterization and anticancer potential of platinum nanoparticles Bioplatin
Yogesh Bendale, Vineeta Bendale, Saili Paul, Soumya Sundar Bhattacharyya
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2012, 10 (6): 681-689.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20120613
Online available: 15 June 2018

Abstract1269)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (3413KB)(112)      

Objective: In the present study, the anticancer potential of platinum nanoparticles Bioplatin is explored and the mode of interactions of Bioplatin with calf thymus DNA and honey was analyzed.
Methods: Bioplatin was synthesized with the help of green nanotechnology and characterized by particle size, zeta potential and surface morphology. The interaction of Bioplatin with DNA and honey was also checked with the help of circular dichroism spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The anticancer potential of Bioplatin was evaluated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and A375 cells in vitro by analyzing results of MTT (3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo-(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide), fluorescence microscopic studies and DNA fragmentation assay.
Results: Bioplatin exhibited a small particle size of 137.5 nm and a surface charge of –35.8 mV. Bioplatin interacted with DNA and brought in effective changes in structure and conformation of DNA, and formed a new complex that increased its stability of DNA intercalated with the base pair of DNA. In vitro studies demonstrated that Bioplatin arrested cell proliferation, and induced chromatin condensation and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation.
Conclusion: Bioplatin induces apoptosis in cancer cells and may have some beneficial effect against human carcinoma. It interacts with DNA, brings stabilization to DNA, and thus prevents the replication of DNA.

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Acupuncture price in forty-one metropolitan regions in the United States: An out-of-pocket cost analysis based on OkCopay.com
Arthur Yin Fan, David Dehui Wang, Hui Ouyang, Haihe Tian, Hui Wei, Deguang He, Changzhen Gong, Jipu Wen, Ming Jin, Chong He, Sarah Faggert Alemi, Sudaba Rahimi
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2019, 17 (5): 315-320.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.06.003
Accepted: 28 May 2019
Online available: 28 June 2019

Abstract1260)   HTML    PDF      
Few studies have focused on the cost of acupuncture treatments although acupuncture has become popular in the United States (U.S.). The purpose of the current study was to examine the out-of-pocket costs incurred from acupuncture services based on an online website, OkCopay.com. We examined descriptive statistics (range, median and 20% intervals) for the cost of acupuncture "first-time visits" and "follow-up visits" in 41 metropolitan regions in the U.S. The acupuncture prices of 723 clinics throughout 39 metropolitan regions were included, except for Birmingham, Alabama and Detroit, Michigan as there was no online data available at the time of the study for these two regions. The cost range for a first-time acupuncture visit was $15–400; the highest median was $150 in Charleston, South Carolina, while the lowest was $45 in St. Louis, Missouri. The top 10 cities for the highest median were: Baltimore, Washington, D.C., New York, San Francisco, San Jose, Boston, Atlanta, Seattle, Portland and Indianapolis, with the median $120, while the median for all 723 clinics was $112. For the follow-up visits, the cost range was $15–300; the highest median was $108 in Charleston, South Carolina, and the lowest $40 in Miami, Florida. The 10 cities with highest median follow-up acupuncture visit costs were: New York, Baltimore, New Orleans, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, San Francisco, San Jose, Seattle, Boston and Atlanta, with the median $85, while for all 723 clinics the median price was $80. The estimation of the average gross annual income of each acupuncturist from the regions studied was $95,760, while the total annual cost of patients seeking acupuncture services in the U.S. was about $3.5 billion in 2018.
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Use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women: a cross-sectional survey in the south of Iran
Naghmeh Yazdi, Alireza Salehi, Mina Vojoud, Mohammad Hossein Sharifi, Ayda Hoseinkhani
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2019, 17 (6): 392-395.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.09.003
Accepted: 04 June 2019
Online available: 16 September 2019

Abstract1259)   HTML    PDF      
Objective
The use of traditional medicine and complementary alternative medicine (TM/CAM) derived from herbal remedies or natural supplements is increasing worldwide, but there are limited data on the use of TM/CAM during pregnancy. Iran has various ethnic populations, and the usage of TM/CAM by the different ethnic groups has not been researched. The aim of this study is to understand the use of TM/CAM modalities in pregnant women of different ethnic groups in southern Iran.


Methods

This study was conducted in primary health care centers in Khuzestan Province, Iran, from May to August, 2016. A semi-structured valid questionnaire was used to gather information in pregnant women (n = 170).


Results

About 46.5% of women in this study used TM/CAM during previous pregnancies. The majority (67%) of study participants were Arab. The Arab population showed increased use of TM/CAM during pregnancy (P = 0.014). Women with complications in former pregnancies had significantly higher incidence rate of TM/CAM use (65.8%) compared to the other group (39.6%) (P = 0.001).


Conclusion

Understanding TM/CAM use and the associated factors in different ethnic groups of pregnant women will benefit the evaluation of the proper health policies and mother-infant health programs. This study contributes to the growing literature on TM/CAM, ethnic diversity and pregnant women.
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Bioavailable curcumin formulations: A review of pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers
Rohitash Jamwal
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2018, 16 (6): 367-374.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.07.001
Online available: 04 July 2018

Abstract1259)   HTML    PDF      
Curcumin is a widely studied natural compound which has shown tremendous in vitro therapeutic potential. Despite that, the clinical efficacy of the native curcumin is weak due to its low bioavailability and high metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract. During the last decade, researchers have come up with different formulations with a focus on improving the bioavailability of curcumin. As a result, a significant number of bioavailable curcumin-based formulations were introduced with the varying range of enhanced bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to collate the published clinical studies of curcumin products with improved bioavailability over conventional (unformulated) curcumin. Based on the literature search, 11 curcumin formulations with available human bioavailability and pharmacokinetics data were included in this review. Further, the data on clinical study design, analytical method, pharmacokinetic parameters and other relevant details of each formulation were extracted. Based on a review of these studies, it is evident that better bioavailability of formulated curcumin products is mostly attributed to improved solubility, stability, and possibly low first-pass metabolism. The review hopes to provide a quick reference guide for anyone looking information on these bioavailable curcumin formulations. Based on the published reports, NovaSol?(185), CurcuWin? (136) and LongVida? (100) exhibited over 100-fold higher bioavailability relative to reference unformulated curcumin. Suggested mechanisms accounting for improved bioavailability of the formulations and details on the bioanalysis methods are also discussed.
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Establishment of Caco-2 cell monolayer model and standard operation procedure for assessing intestinal absorption of chemical components of traditional Chinese medicine
Xiu-wei Yang, Xiao-da Yang, Ying Wang, Lian Ma, Yue Zhang, Xiao-gai Yang, Kui Wang
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2007, 5 (6): 634-641.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20070607
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Objective: To establish Caco-2 (a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line) cell monolayer model and the standard operation procedure for studying and assessing intestinal absorption of chemical components of traditional Chinese medicine.Methods: Caco-2 cell monolayer model was established and evaluated by morphology feature using scanning electron microscope, inverted microscope and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay. Additionally, the model was further tested for the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the apparent permeability (Papp) of standard compounds, i.e. propranolol and atenolol, which were the control substances for high and poor transcellular transport marker, respectively.Results: The integrality of cell monolayer, cell differentiation (reflected by expression of alkaline phosphatase and cell monolayer morphology), and the Papp value of standard compounds in the established Caco-2 cell model were satisfactory. All parameters tested were in good agreement with those reported in the literature.Conclusion: The established Caco-2 cell model can be used to study the intestinal absorption of orally administrated chemical components of traditional Chinese medicine and their absorption mechanism.

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An update on Shankhpushpi, a cognition-boosting Ayurvedic medicine
Neeraj Kumar Sethiya, Alok Nahata, Shri Hari Miahra, Vinod Kumar Dixit
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2009, 7 (11): 1001-1022.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20091101
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Shankhpushpi is an Ayurvedic drug used for its action on the central nervous system, especially for boosting memory and improving intellect. Quantum of information gained from Ayurvedic and other Sanskrit literature revealed the existence of four different plant species under the name of Shankhpushpi, which is used in various Ayurvedic prescriptions described in ancient texts, singly or in combination with other herbs. The sources comprise of entire herbs with following botanicals viz., Convulvulus pluricaulis Choisy. (Convulvulaceae), Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convulvulaceae), Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Papilionaceae) and Canscora decussata Schult. (Gentianaceae). A review on the available scientific information in terms of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, preclinical and clinical applications of controversial sources of Shankhpushpi is prepared with a view to review scientific work undertaken on Shankhpushpi. It may provide parameters of differentiation and permit appreciation of variability of drug action by use of different botanical sources.

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The use of self-Reiki for stress reduction and relaxation
Elaine L. Bukowski
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2015, 13 (5): 336-340.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60190-X
Abstract1244)   HTML    PDF      

Objective
More than one-third of college students reported the desire for stress reduction techniques and education. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 20-week structured self-Reiki program on stress reduction and relaxation in college students.
Methods
Students were recruited from Stockton University and sessions were conducted in the privacy of their residence. Twenty students completed the entire study consisting of 20 weeks of self-Reiki done twice weekly. Each participant completed a Reiki Baseline Credibility Scale, a Reiki Expectancy Scale, and a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) after acceptance into the study. The PSS was completed every four weeks once the interventions were initiated. A global assessment questionnaire was completed at the end of the study. Logs summarizing the outcome of each session were submitted at the end of the study.
Results
With the exception of three participants, participants believed that Reiki is a credible technique for reducing stress levels. Except for two participants, participants agreed that Reiki would be effective in reducing stress levels. All participants experienced stress within the month prior to completing the initial PSS. There was a significant reduction in stress levels from pre-study to post-study. There was a correlation between self-rating of improvement and final PSS scores. With one exception, stress levels at 20 weeks did not return to pre-study stress levels.
Conclusion
This study supports the hypothesis that the calming effect of Reiki may be achieved through the use of self-Reiki.

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Effects of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena on nulliparous women’s pain and anxiety of labor during first stage of labor
Sepideh Hamdamian, Soheila Nazarpour, Masoumeh Simbar, Sepideh Hajian, Faraz Mojab, AtefehTalebi
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2018, 16 (2): 120-125.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.02.005
Online available: 09 February 2018

Abstract1238)   HTML    PDF      
Background
Reducing labor pain and anxiety is one of the most important goals of maternity care.


Objective

This study aimed to assess the effects of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena on pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor among nulliparous women.


Design, setting, participants and interventions

This was a randomized clinical trial of 110 nulliparous women. The eligible participants were randomly assigned to two groups of aromatherapy and control in an Iranian maternity hospital. The participants received 0.08?mL of Rosa damascena essence in the aromatherapy group and 0.08?mL of normal saline in the control group, every 30?min. Pain was measured 3 times, once each at three stages of cervical dilation (4–5, 6–7, and 8–10?cm). Anxiety was measured twice, once each at two stages of cervical dilation (4–7 and 8–10?cm). The tools for data collection were the Spielberger anxiety questionnaire, numerical pain rating scale, demographic and obstetric questionnaire, and an observational checklist. Data analyses included the t-test, Mann–Whitney U test and Chi-square test.


Main outcome measures

Severity of labor pain and severity of anxiety were used as primary outcome measures. Labor and delivery characteristics (including number of contractions, duration of contractions in second stage, Bishop score, augmentation by oxytocin, Apgar score, and mode of delivery), demographic characteristics, and fertility information were used as secondary outcome measures.


Results

Pain severity in the group receiving aromatherapy with R. damascena was significantly lower than in the control group after treatment at each pain assessment (cervical dilation of 4–5, 6–7, and 8–10?cm; P?<?0.05). Anxiety levels were also significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group after treatment at each time of measurement (cervical dilation of 4–7 and 8–10?cm; P?<?0.05).


Conclusion

Aromatherapy with R. damascena reduced the severity of pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor. Aromatherapy with R. damascena is a convenient and effective method for pain and anxiety reduction during the first stage of labor.


Trial registration

Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial: IRCT201306258801N3.

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Traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of liver diseases: Progress, challenges and opportunities
Chang-qing Zhao, Yang Zhou, Jian Ping, Lie-ming Xu
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2014, 12 (5): 401-408.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60039-X
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is commonly used in treating liver diseases worldwide, especially in China. The advantages of using TCM for treatment of liver diseases include: protecting hepatocytes, inhibiting hepatic inflammation and antifibrosis in the liver. In this article, we introduce TCM herbal preparations from the Chinese materia medica (such as Fuzheng Huayu) that are typically used for the treatment of liver diseases. Literature surrounding the mechanisms of TCM therapy for treatment of liver diseases is presented and discussed. We propose that side effects of herbal compounds are often under-appreciated, and that more care should be taken in the prescription of potentially hepatotoxic medicines. Further, to deepen the understanding of TCM mechanisms, new techniques and methodologies must be developed. Future studies will lead to the enhancement of clinical outcomes of TCM. As complementary and alternative therapies, TCMs will play an expanding role in the future of liver disease treatment.

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Far infrared-emitting ceramics decrease Freund’s adjuvant-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice through cytokine modulation and activation of peripheral inhibitory neuroreceptors
Ralph Fernando Rosas, Aline Armiliato Emer, Ana Paula Batisti, Daniela Dero Ludtke, Bruna Lenfers Turnes, Franciane Bobinski, Francisco José Cidral-Filho, Daniel Fernandes Martins
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2018, 16 (6): 396-403.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.08.002
Online available: 11 August 2018

Abstract1227)   HTML    PDF      
Objective
The present study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of far infrared-emitting ceramics (cFIRs) in a model of persistent inflammatory hyperalgesia and to elucidate the possible mechanisms of these effects.


Methods

Mice were injected with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) and treated with cFIRs via placement on a pad impregnated with cFIRs on the bottom of the housing unit for different periods of time. Mice underwent mechanical hyperalgesia and edema assessments, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-10 levels were measured. Twenty-four hours after CFA injection and 30?min before cFIR treatment, mice were pretreated with a nonselective adenosinergic antagonist, caffeine, the selective adenosine receptor A1 antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), the selective cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist, AM281, the selective cannabinoid receptor type 2 antagonist, AM630, or the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed.


Results

cFIRs statistically (P?<?0.05) decreased CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia ((82.86?±?5.21)% in control group vs (56.67?±?9.54)% in cFIR group) and edema ((1699.0?±?77.8) μm in control group vs (988.7?±?107.6)?μm in cFIR group). cFIRs statistically (P?<?0.05) reduced TNF-α ((0.478?±?0.072)?pg/mg of protein in control group vs (0.273?±?0.055)?pg/mg of protein in cFIR group) and IL-1β ((95.81?±?3.95)?pg/mg of protein in control group vs (80.61?±?4.71)?pg/mg of protein in cFIR group) levels and statistically (P?<?0.05) increased IL-10 ((18.32?±?0.78)?pg/mg of protein in control group vs (25.89?±?1.23)?pg/mg of protein in cFIR group) levels in post-CFA-injected paws. Peripheral pre-administration of inhibitory neuroreceptor antagonists (caffeine, DPCPX, AM281, AM630 and naloxone) prevented the analgesic effects of cFIRs (P?<?0.05).


Conclusion

These data provide additional support for the use of cFIRs in the treatment of painful inflammatory conditions and contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of the therapeutic effects of cFIRs.
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Thread-dragging and pad pressure therapy in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of pilonidal sinus: A case report
Jin-gen Lu, Chen Wang, Yong-qing Cao, Yi-bo Yao
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2011, 9 (1): 36-37.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20110107
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Exercise and gut microbiota: Clinical implications for the feasibility of Tai Chi
Hidetaka Hamasaki
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2017, 15 (4): 270-281.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60342-X
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Recent studies have shown exercise is associated with changes in the gut microbiota in humans as well as in experimental animals. Tai Chi is an exercise that integrates a martial art, deep breathing and mediation, and has various beneficial effects for health. This review summarizes current knowledge and recent literature on the association between exercise and gut microbiota, and explores the feasibility of Tai Chi for improving gut microbiota composition and function. PubMed/MEDLINE was used to search the English literature for the keywords exercise and gut microbiota. Fourteen relevant studies were identified. In humans, exercise increases the gut microbial diversity. However, the evidence for this association is weak, as previous studies were small-scale, non-controlled studies of short duration or cross-sectional design. In animals, exercise alters the composition of gut microbiota, with some studies suggesting exercise increases the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio. However, these results are controversial, partly because host genetics and physical fitness also influence gut microbiota. Furthermore, the intensity of exercise may play a key role in how exercise affects gut microbiota. Tai Chi is a moderate-intensity exercise that improves immune function and inflammation of the gut. Tai Chi may also affect gut microbiota through vagal modulation and mediating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, no studies have investigated the association between Tai Chi and gut microbiota. Well designed studies exploring the effects of Tai Chi on gut microbiota are needed.
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Acupuncture for migraine without aura: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Jia Xu, Fu-qing Zhang, Jian Pei, Jun Ji
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2018, 16 (5): 312-321.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.06.002
Online available: 28 June 2018

Abstract1211)   HTML    PDF      
Background
Migraine without aura (MWoA), the most common type of migraine, has great impacts on quality of life for migraineurs. Acupuncture is used in the treatment and prevention of migraine for its analgesic effects.


Objective

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to systematically assess the therapeutic and preventive effect of acupuncture treatment and its safety for MWoA.


Search strategy

Nine electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Lilacs, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP (CQVIP), Wanfang Data and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR)) were systematically searched from their beginning through June 2017 using MeSH terms such as “acupuncture, acupuncture therapy, electro-acupuncture, ear acupuncture, acupuncture points, acupuncture analgesia,” and “migraine disorders, cluster headache.” Manual searching included other conference abstracts and reference lists.


Inclusion criteria

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a clinical diagnosis of MWoA, which were treated with acupuncture versus oral medication or sham acupuncture treatment.


Data extraction and analysis

Two evaluators screened and collected literature independently; they extracted information on participants, study design, interventions, follow-up, withdrawal and adverse events and assessed risk of bias and quality of the acupuncture intervention. The primary outcomes were frequency of migraine (FM) and number of migraine days (NM). Secondary outcomes included the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, effective rate (ER) and adverse events. Pooled estimates were calculated as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous data and relative risk (RR) with 95% CI for dichotomous data.


Results

Overall, 14 RCTs including 1155 participants were identified. The analysis found that acupuncture had a significant advantage over medication in reducing FM (MD?=??1.50; 95% CI: ?2.32 to ?0.68; P?<?0.001) and VAS score (MD?=?0.97; 95% CI: 0.63–1.31; P?<?0.00001) and had a higher ER (RR?=?1.30; 95% CI: 1.16–1.45; P?<?0.00001). Acupuncture also had a significant advantage over sham acupuncture in the decrease of FM (MD?=??1.05; 95% CI: ?1.75 to ?0.34; P?=?0.004) and VAS score (MD?=??1.19; 95% CI: ?1.75 to ?0.63; P?<?0.0001). Meanwhile, acupuncture was more tolerated than medication because of less side effect reports (RR?=?0.29; 95% CI: 0.17–0.51; P?<?0.0001). However, the quality of evidence in the included studies was mainly low (to very low), making confidence in the FM and VAS score results low.


Conclusion

Our meta-analysis shows that the effectiveness of acupuncture is still uncertain, but it might be relatively safer than medication therapy in the treatment and prophylaxis of MWoA. Further proof is needed.
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Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses:The PRISMA statement (Chinese edition)
David Moher, Alessandro Liberati, Jennifer Tetzlaff, Douglas G. Altman, The PRISMA Group
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2009, 7 (9): 889-896.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20090918
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Determination of flavonoids, polyphenols and antioxidant activity of Tephrosia purpurea: A seasonal study
Madan Mohan Pandey, Sayyada Khatoon, Subha Rastogi, Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2016, 14 (6): 447-455.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60276-5
Abstract1204)   HTML    PDF      

Objective

Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. is widely used in traditional medicine to treat liver disorders, febrile attacks, enlargement and obstruction of liver, spleen, and kidney. In the present study, investigations were carried out to determine the seasonal impact on the content of flavonoid glycosides and on antioxidant activities so as to identify the optimal time of harvesting.

Methods

The plant materials were collected in different seasons during 2013-2014. Air-dried, powdered plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol and ethanol:water (1:1) by ultrasound-assisted extraction process. Their chemical composition in terms of total polyphenol and flavonoid contents (TPCs and TFCs) was determined using modified colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay respectively. To determine the in vitro antioxidant activity, diphenyl-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay and total antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdate antioxidant assay were carried out. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/photo-diode array (PDA) analysis was used to quantify the flavonoid glycosides in the samples collected in different seasons. Correlation studies were also carried out between antioxidant activities and TPCs.

Results

The highest TPC and TFC were found to be in the 95% ethanolic extract of the August sample and the lowest in the 50% hydro-alcoholic extract of the plant sample collected in winter season. It was observed that in both the assays used to determine the antioxidant activity, the 95% ethanolic extracts in all the seasons showed a higher activity than their respective 50% hydro-alcoholic extracts with an increase in activity as we go from cold to hot to rainy seasons. Based on correlation analysis, DPPH radical-scavenging activities as well as the spectrophotometrically measured phosphomolybdenum complex were also strongly correlated with TPC of the extracts. The most abundant flavonoid glycoside was quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside in all the seasons. The content of all flavonoids was observed highest in the 95% ethanolic extract of the plant collected in August (TP-3). The 50% hydro-alcoholic extract of the plant collected in December (TP-6) showed the lowest amount of flavonoids and antioxidant activity.

Conclusion

The findings of this study confirmed that the metabolism and production of flavonoids in T. purpurea are vigorously affected by seasonal factors. Significant differences were observed in the TPC, TFC and flavonoid glycoside composition in the 95% ethanolic as well as 50% hydro-alcoholic extracts of T. purpurea collected in different seasons. Since the 95% ethanolic extract of the August sample (TP-3), which also happens to be its flowering season, exhibited the highest TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities in both DPPH and phosphomolybdate assays as well as contained the highest content of all flavonoids, it could be recommended as the optimal season of harvesting T. purpurea with respect to its pharmaceutically important constituents, i.e., flavonoids.

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Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological updates on Hygrophila auriculata (Schum.) Hiene: An overview
Neeraj K. Sethiya, Nasir M. Ahmed, Raeesh M. Shekh, Vivek Kumar, Pawan Kumar Singh, Vipin Kumar
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2018, 16 (5): 299-311.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.07.002
Online available: 04 July 2018

Abstract1203)   HTML    PDF      
This article explores the most recent evidence-based information on ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological understanding of Hygrophila auriculata for the treatment of various diseases and health conditions. Various ethnomedicinal writings suggest the use of the plant or its parts for the treatment of jaundice, oedema, gastrointestinal ailments, diarrhoea, dysentery, urinogenital disorder, gall stones, urinary calculi, kidney stone, leucorrhoea, rheumatism, tuberculosis, anaemia, body pain, constipation, skin disease, and as an aphrodisiac. The plant has been reported to contain flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, ellagic acid, gallic acid and quercetin), alkaloids (asteracanthine and asteracanthicine), triterpenes (lupeol, lupenone, hentricontane and betulin), sterols (stigmasterol and asterol), minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, aliphatic esters and essential oils. Extracts and bioactive compounds from the plant have been found to possess antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antitermite, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, central nervous system protective, antitumour, antidiabetic, anticataract, antioxidant, haematopoietic, diuretic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antimotility, aphrodisiac, neuroprotection, anti-endotoxin and anti-urolithiatic activities. For this paper, we reviewed patents, clinical studies, analytical studies and marketed formulations from the earliest found examples from 1887 to the end of 2017.
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Comprehensive review of Clerodendrum phlomidis: A traditionally used bitter
Muthu Kumaradoss MOHAN MARUGA RAJA, Shri Hari MISHRA
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2010, 8 (6): 510-524.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20100602
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Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f., (syn. Clerodendrum multiflorum (Burm.f) O. Kuntze, Volkameria multiflorum Burm. f.) (Lamiaceae) is an important and well known medicinal plant extensively used in Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicine for treatment of various ailments. The popular therapies include on inflammation, diabetes, nervous disorder, asthma, rheumatism, digestive disorders, and urinary disorders as well as a bitter tonic. It was reported that pectolinaringenin, scutellarein, clerodin, clerodendrin, clerosterol, 24β-ethylcholesta-5,22E,25-triene-3β-ol, lup-20(29)-en-3-triacontanoate, 4,2′,4′-trihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone-4,4′α-D-diglucoside, 7-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside and α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)α-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-naringin-4′-O-α-D-glucopyranoside-5-methyl ether had been isolated from this plant. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts were reported active as analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, antiplasmodial, hypoglycemic, minor tranquilizers, anti-asthmatic, antifungal, nematicidal, anti-amnestic and anti-arthritic. There are coincidences between some of the traditional usages of this plant and experimentally observed effects of the extracts but very few biological studies available on bioactive fractions and/or pure compounds. This review is an attempt to compile the exhaustive literature on Clerodendrum phlomidis, to highlight, analyze and critically assess the pharmaceutical potential of this underestimated plant in a systematic way.

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Efficacy of Chinese patent medicine Tian Gui Capsule in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized controlled trial
Susuana Kuek, Wen-jun Wang, Sui-qi Gui
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2011, 9 (9): 965-972.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20110907
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Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder and one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities in women. Recently, many studies have been conducted assessing Chinese herbal medicine as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS, it is, therefore, worthwhile to analyze and observe the curative effects of traditional Chinese medicine treatment in PCOS.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the Chinese patent medicine Tian Gui Capsule, in women with PCOS and compare its effects with metformin and ethinyl estradiol plus cyproterone acetate (Diane-35). Design, setting, participants and intervention: A total of 47 PCOS outpatients from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University were randomly divided into 3 groups. Patients in group A (n=19) were given Tian Gui Capsule, patients in group B (n=17) were given metformin, and patients in group C (n=11) were given Diane-35. The 3 groups of patients were treated for 3 months. Main outcome measures: Serum testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels, free androgen index (FAI), fasting blood glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitive index (ISI) and left and right ovary volumes of the 3 groups were evaluated before and after treatment

Results:After 3 months of treatment, when compared with before treatment data, group A patients showed decreased serum T and SHBG levels, FAI, FINS, and left and right ovary volumes (P<0.05), and increased serum DHEA-S (P<0.05), while the FPG level showed no significant change. Although the level of serum T and FINS among the 3 groups after the treatment were similar, group A demonstrated better results than group B in reducing the FAI and increasing the serum SHBG, but less significant results than group C besides, group B was the only group showed improved insulin sensitivity. Although the level of FPG of the 3 groups after treatment were similar, group C had the most increased FPG.

Conclusion:The effects of Tian Gui Capsule on hyperandrogenism are not as significant as Diane-35, but more effective than metformin. The effects of Tian Gui Capsule on hyperinsulinemia are not as significant as metformin but better than Diane-35. Tian Gui Capsule treats PCOS by regulating ovarian functions and reducing blood insulin level without inhibiting the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm the above results.

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The necessity for integrating traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine into medical education curricula in Iran
Mohammad Hossein Ayati, Ata Pourabbasi, Nazli Namazi, Arman Zargaran, Zahra Kheiry, Amir Hooman Kazemi, Bagher Larijani
Journal of Integrative Medicine    2019, 17 (4): 296-301.   DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.04.005
Online available: 21 May 2019

Abstract1199)      PDF      
Background
The use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) is increasing in both developed and developing countries. The school of Persian medicine (PM) in Iran is a comprehensive medical school that is rich in history and has its own special principles, elements, philosophy, and diagnostic and treatment options. Many complementary therapy modalities are also popular and in demand among patients and physicians. The aim of this paper is to provide logic for the policymakers in Iranian medical education to make changes in medical education curricula, particularly on integrating T&CM.

Methods
We reviewed the global experience in teaching T&CM to medical students, and highlighting the strengths of PM, described why it is necessary to integrate T&CM into general medicine curricula in Iran.

Results
PM is a traditional system of medicine that dates back about 7000?years. Although there are few studies about the safety and effectiveness of PM, research into it has recently been accelerated. There is a suitable opportunity for integrating T&CM with conventional medicine. Physicians should be familiar with T&CM to avoid any contraindications, interactions, and unwanted effects.

Conclusion
Traditional medicine is part of Iran’s heritage and, thus, needs special attention. Familiarization of physicians with T&CM can help them choose the best treatment options for their patients. To integrate T&CM into the medical education curricula of Iran, a two-credit course has been proposed for implementation across the country.
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Traditional herbal medicine in preventing recurrence after resection of small hepatocellular carcinoma: A multicenter randomized controlled trial
Xiao-feng Zhai, Zhe Chen, Bai Li, Feng Shen, Jia Fan, Wei-ping Zhou, Yun-ke Yang, Jing Xu, Xiao Qin, Le-qun Li, Chang-quan Ling
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2013, 11 (2): 90-100.   DOI: 10.3736/jintegrmed2013021
Abstract1199)   HTML    PDF      

Background

Disease recurrence is a main challenge in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There is no generally accepted method for preventing recurrence of HCC after resection.


Objective

To compare the efficacy of a traditional herbal medicine (THM) regimen and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in preventing recurrence in post-resection patients with small HCC.



Design, setting, participants and interventions

This is a multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled study, which was undertaken in five centers of China. A total of 379 patients who met the eligibility criteria and underwent randomization were enrolled in this trial. One hundred and eighty-eight patients were assigned to the THM group and received Cinobufacini injection and Jiedu Granule, and the other 191 patients were assigned to the TACE group and received one single course of TACE.


Main outcome measures

Primary outcome measures were the annual recurrence rate and the time to recurrence. Incidence of adverse events was regarded as the secondary outcome measure.


Results

Among the 364 patients who were included in the intention-to-treat analysis, 67 patients of the THM group and 87 of the TACE group had recurrence, with a hazard ratio of 0.695 (P = 0.048). Median recurrence-free survival of the patients in the THM and TACE groups was 46.89 and 34.49 months, respectively. Recurrence rates at 1, 2 and 3 years were 17.7%, 33.0% and 43.5% for the THM group, and 28.8%, 42.5% and 54.0% for the TACE group, respectively (P = 0.026). Multivariate analysis indicated that the THM regimen had a big advantage for prolonging the recurrence-free survival. Adverse events were mild and abnormality of laboratory indices of the two groups were similar.


Conclusion

In comparison with TACE therapy, the THM regimen was associated with diminished risk of recurrence of small-sized HCC after resection, with comparable adverse events.


Trial registration identifier

This trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry with the identifier ChiCTR-TRC-07000033.

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Chemical components of Centella asiatica and their bioactivities
Cheng-jian Zheng, Lu-ping Qin
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine    2007, 5 (3): 348-351.   DOI: 10.3736/jcim20070324
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ISSN 2095-4964
CN 31-2083/R

Editors-in-Chief:
Changquan Ling, Shanghai, China
Lixing Lao, Virginia, USA
Frequency: 6 issues per year
Publisher: Science Press, China

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