Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2005, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (6): 446-449.doi: 10.3736/jcim20050607

• Original Clinical Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Immunological mechanism of exfoliative tongue fur in children with asthma

Fu-feng Li1,Guo-gang Li1,You-zhong Wu1,Jing Li1,Xiao-ying Zhang2,Hui-fang Wang1,Yi-qin Wang1   

  1. 1. Laboratory of Syndromes of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China
    2. Central Laboratory, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200021, China
  • Received:2005-03-10 Online:2005-11-20 Published:2005-11-20
  • Contact: Fu-feng Li


To explore the immunological mechanism of exfoliative tongue fur in children with asthma.


Thirty-nine children with asthma, twenty-eight children with repetitive respiratory tract infection (non-asthma) and eleven healthy children were divided into five groups, which were asthma with exfoliative fur or with non-exfoliative fur groups, non-asthma with exfoliative fur or with non-exfoliative fur groups and normal control group. The concentrations of keratin 13 and bcl-2 in cells exfoliated from tongue fur were detected by immunohistochemical method. The expression levels of blood cell chemokine receptor-3 (CCR-3) and CD4 + were examined by flow cytometry, and the levels of serum cortisol and IgE were detected by radioimmunoassay.


The levels of blood CD4 + and CCR-3 of children with asthma and exfoliative fur were higher than those in the asthma with non-exfoliative fur group and the normal control group (P<0.05). The serum level of cortisol in the groups of asthma with exfoliative fur and non-asthma with exfoliative fur were lower than that in the other groups (P<0.05). The serum levels of IgE in asthma with exfoliative fur or with non-exfoliative fur groups were higher than that in the other groups (P<0.05). Concentrations of keratin 13 in the cells exfoliated from tongue fur in the groups of asthma or non-asthma with exfoliative fur were lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference of expression level of bcl-2 in the cells exfoliated from tongue fur among these five groups.


There is a reasonably close relationship between the formation of exfoliative tongue fur and the immune system such as low level of serum cortisol and high levels of blood CD4 + and CCR-3, which may all promote the formation of exfoliative fur. The disability of keratinization and apoptosis of epithelial cells of tongue may also be one cause for its formation.

Key words: Exfoliative fur, Asthma, Immunity

CLC Number: 

  • R241.25

Tab 1

Serum levels of IgE and cortisol in 5 groups of children ($\bar{x}$±s )"

Group n IgE (kU/L) Cortisol (μg/L)
with exfoliative fur 18 769.73±283.84*△□ 150.5±72.3*▲□
with non-exfoliative fur 21 770.36±317.50*△□ 190.5±69.5
with exfoliative fur 14 532.79±398.60 175.7±65.3*▲□
with non-exfoliative fur 14 612.30±390.24 221.1±107.6
Normal control 11 548.16±252.53 223.4±35.6

Tab 2

Blood levels of CCR-3 and CD4+ in 5 groups of children ($\bar{x}$±s ,%)"

Group n CCR-3 CD4+
with exfoliative fur 18 3.76±2.62*△□ 41.59±6.63*△▲□
with non-exfoliative fur 21 4.30±3.62*△□ 31.39±7.28
with exfoliative fur 14 2.45±1.19 35.72±4.85
with non-exfoliative fur 14 2.74±2.25 32.99±10.10
Normal control 11 2.43±0.76 30.16±7.53

Tab 3

Expressions of keratin 13 and bcl-2 in cells exfoliated from tongue fur of children in 5 groups ($\bar{x}$±s )"

Group n keratin 13 bcl-2
with exfoliative fur 18 18.32±15.24*△▲□ 67.62±32.08
with non-exfoliative fur 21 25.55±18.15* 75.73±31.32
with exfoliative fur 14 17.96±14.23*△□ 72.82±39.06
with non-exfoliative fur 14 41.19±24.01 74.53±26.86
Normal control 11 38.75±13.25 72.31±23.21
[1] 洪佳璇 . 花剥苔、地图舌研究现状与进展[J]. 浙江临床医学, 2000,2(2):139-140
[2] 全国儿科哮喘协作组. 儿童哮喘诊断标准和治疗常规[J]. 中华儿童保健杂志, 1993,1(4):249-251
[3] 朱文锋 . 中医诊断学(第1版)[M]. 上海: 上海科学技术出版社, 1995,( 第1版):43-44
[4] 顾美琴, 张树一, 杨淑蓉 . 儿童哮喘剥苔与血清IgE关系的探讨[J]. 临床儿科杂志, 1994,12(2):118-119
[5] 刘文艳, 汪杏巧 . 过敏性哮喘患者新型免疫疗法治疗前后血清嗜酸性细胞阳离子蛋白浓度的变化[J]. 医学理论与实践, 1999,12(12):702-704
[6] Franz-Bacon K, Dairaghi DJ, Boehme SA , et al. Human thymocytes express CCR3 and are activated by eotaxin[J]. Blood, 1999,93(10):3233-3240
[7] 杨惠玲 . 高级病理生理学(第1版)[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 1998,( 第1版):39-82
[1] Oluwakemi Josephine Awakan, Sylvia Omonirume Malomo, Abdullahi Adeyinka Adejare, Adedoyin Igunnu, Olubunmi Atolani, Abiodun Humphrey Adebayo, Bamidele Victor Owoyele . Anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory constituents of leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L. in animal models. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(1): 62-70.
[2] Yu-fangLin, Zhi-danLiu, WenMa, Wei-dongShen. Hazards of insomnia and the effects of acupuncture treatment on insomnia. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(3): 174-186.
[3] Bolleddula Jayaprakasam, Nan Yang, Ming-Chun Wen, Rong Wang, Joseph Goldfarb, Hugh Sampson, Xiu-Min Li. Constituents of the anti-asthma herbal formula ASHMITM synergistically inhibit IL-4 and IL-5 secretion by murine Th2 memory cells, and eotaxin by human lung fibroblasts in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(3): 195-205.
[4] Yi-tao Zhao , Xin-guang Zhang , Li Bai , Li-qing Li , Jian-er Yu . Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Pingchuan Formula on airway inflammation, interferon-γ and interleukin-4 in mice with asthma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(7): 807-813.
[5] Su-fang Zhang, Chang-quan Ling , Bai Li, Hong-yun Chen , Zhe Chen. Effects of Sisheng Decoction on the immunity and anti-stress function in mice with spleen deficiency syndrome. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(12): 1465-1469.
[6] Ke-hua Shi, Yin-gen Wu, Bi-dan Xiong, Xiao Yu. Effects of medicinal extract for tonifying kidney to relieve asthma on glucocorticoid receptor expression in lung tissues of rats with bronchial asthma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(8): 785-789.
[7] Wen Sun, Jian Yu, Yu-min Shi, Hao Zhang, Ying Wang, Bing-bing Wu. Effects of Cordyceps extract on cytokines and transcription factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of asthmatic children during remission stage. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(4): 341-346.
[8] Pei Wang, Li-ping Xu, Xi-hong Jin, Jing Yang, Ren-hui Liu, Xiu-juan Wang . Effects of a glucocorticoid on development of kidney deficiency syndrome in a rat model of asthma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(1): 80-85.
[9] Ying Zhang , Huang-jin Tong, Jing-hua Yu , Peng-cheng Gu, Xin-sheng Fan, Hui-qin Xu. Effects of San'ao decoction and its analogous prescriptions on airway inflammation in mice with respiratory syncytial virus- and ovalbumin-induced asthma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2009, 7(4): 354-359.
[10] Hui-hua Zhu , Jian-er Yu , Xiao-feng Zhang, Yan-ping Chen, Hui-fang Pang, Guo-hua Wang, Yu Guan, Jie Wu. Effects of Pingchuan Recipe on airway remodeling in mice with bronchial asthma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2009, 7(3): 261-267.
[11] Zhi-jun Dai, Xi-jing Wang, Zong-zheng Ji, Zong-fang Li, Wei Tang, Hua-feng Kang, Xiao-bin Ma, Lei Liu. Scutellaria barbata extract enhances efficacy and reduces toxicity of chemotherapy in hepatoma H22-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(7): 720-724.
[12] Ying-lan Zhang, Yin-gen Wu. Effects of Kechuanluo oral liquid on eosinophil apoptosis and its regulation factors in lung tissues of asthmatic mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(6): 600-605.
[13] Qi Wang, Shi-lin Yao, Jing Dong, Hong-dong Wu, Cheng-yu Wu, Zhong-yuan Xia, He-feng Shi, Guo-ming Pan, Qi-wei Pan, Jian-xiong Zhao, Jing Cai, Zheng-zhi Cui. Changes of endocrine and immune function in subjects of yang deficiency constitution. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(12): 1226-1232.
[14] A-gao Zhou, Yong Zhang, Gang Kui, De-Yun Kong, Hai-liang Ge, Qiu-hua Ren, Jia-rong Dong, Sheng Hong, Xu-ming Mao, Yin Wang, Hui-zheng Zhang, Shu-jun Wang. Influence of traditional Chinese compound recipes with different efficacy on body weight, tumor weight and immune function in H22 cancer-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 77-82.
[15] Ning-qun Wang, Liang-duo Jiang, Zong-xing Li. Research progress in asthma-related quality of life. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 93-97.
Full text



[1] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[2] Zhi-chun Jin. Problems in establishing clinical guideline for integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 5-8
[3] Bo Wang , Wei Yan , Li-hui Hou, Xiao-ke Wu. Disorder of Tiangui (kidney essence) and reproductive dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1018-1022
[4] Hui-min Liu, Xian-bo Wang, Yu-juan Chang, Li-li Gu. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of integrative medicine therapy for treatment of chronic severe hepatitis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1211-1228
[5] Liang-ping Hu, Xiao-lei Bao. Three-factor designs unable to examine the interactions (Part 2). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1229-1232
[6] Pedro Saganha João, Doenitz Christoph, Greten Tobias, Efferth Thomas, J. Greten Henry. Qigong therapy for physiotherapists suffering from burnout: a preliminary study. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1233-1239
[7] Oluwole Busayo Akinola. Should complementary and alternative medicine familiarisation modules be taught in African medical schools?. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2011, 9(11): 1165-1169
[8] Kishan Lal Tiwari, Shailesh Kumar Jadhav, Veenu Joshi. An updated review on medicinal herb genus Spilanthes. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2011, 9(11): 1170-1178
[9] Li-fang Wang, Jin-feng Wang, Wei-fang Jin, Hong-fu Wang, Shao-fen Zhang, Jian-jun Gao. Effects of daidzein on steroid receptor coactivator-1 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2011, 9(11): 1248-1253
[10] Gollapalle L. Viswanatha, Hanumanthappa Shylaja, K. Sadashiva Sandeep Rao, Yathiraj Ashwini, V. Ramaiah Santhosh Kumar, C. Gangadharaiah Mohan, Venkate Gowda Sunil, M. Venkateshappa Sarvesh Kumar, Subbanna Rajesh. Amelioration of immobilization stress-induced biochemical and behavioral alterations and mitochondrial dysfunction by naringin in mice: Possible mechanism of nitric oxide modulation. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2011, 9(11): 1254-1263